Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Articles
Published: 20-06-2021

Unify Religious and Ethnic Identity: Can it be New Approaches for Community Development in Contemporary Muslim China?

Minzu University of China
Unify Religious Ethnic Identity Community Development Harmonious Coexistence

Abstract

Nowadays, religion has continuously been a supposition that separated from the role of development. However, the harmonious co-existence between Islam and Confucianism has been a new trend for sustainable development. Through harmonious dialogue among ethnicity and cultural society, community development issues encouraged all stakeholders to build a balanced life. This study aims to deliberate interpretation of the historical experience of co-existence between Islam and Confucianism amidst common heritage as a new instrument of national development in China. This study uses a historical approach and qualitative methods, in which the article answered scepticism that religions only could produce hatred, conflict, apartheid, and inclusivism. The result shows that made Islam an indispensable part of Chinese civilization. There could contribute to the contemporary global dialogue that is resolving the conflict among religions and nationalists. Instead, there makes strengthen for sustainable community development affected economic stability. The paper concludes that escalating the harmonious co-existence and religious dialogue should be rising in the public sphere as a new trend for sustain and prosperous people with minority groups in contemporary China.

References

  1. Almén, O., & Burell, M. (2018). Social accountability as social movement outcome: Protests in a Chinese city. Social Movement Studies, 17(6), 716–735. https://doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2018.1521716
  2. Beekun, R. I., & Badawi, J. A. (2005). Balancing ethical responsibility among multiple organizational stakeholders: The Islamic perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 60(2), 131–145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-004-8204-5
  3. Bompani, B. (2019). Religion and development: Tracing the trajectories of an evolving sub-discipline. Progress in Development Studies, 19(3), 171–185. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464993419829598
  4. Buckley, P. J. (2016). Historical Research Approaches to the Analysis of Internationalisation. Management International Review, 56(6), 879–900. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11575-016-0300-0
  5. Çaksu, A. (2020). Islamophobia, Chinese Style: Total Internment of Uyghur Muslims by the People’s Republic of China. Islamophobia Studies Journal, 5(2), 175–198.
  6. Cameron, J., Hodge, P., Howard, A., & Stuart, G. (2016). Navigating dilemmas of community development: Practitioner reflections on working with Aboriginal communities. Community Development, 47(4), 546–561. https://doi.org/10.1080/15575330.2016.1205116
  7. Campbell, D., & Hunt, J. E. (2013). Achieving broader benefits from indigenous land use agreements: Community development in central australia. Community Development Journal, 48(2), 197–214. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bss036
  8. Coco, O. (2020). Contemporary China and the “Harmonious” World Order in the Age of Globalization. The Chinese Journal of Global Governance, 6(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1163/23525207-12340044
  9. Dai, H. (2016). From personal ties to village welfare: Changing community bonding in post-socialist rural China. Community Development Journal, 51(4), 517–533. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bsv048
  10. Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2009). Handbook of Qualitatif Research. Pustaka Pelajar.
  11. Ding, M. (2020). Cultural Intimacy in Ethnicity: Understanding Qingzhen Food from Chinese Muslims’ Views. Journal of Contemporary China, 29(121), 17–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/10670564.2019.1621527
  12. Fawaid, A. (2017). Trans-Religious Identity from the Edge? Promoting Interfaith Dialogue among Transgender Community in Yogyakarta. Al-Albab, 6(1), 103–124. https://doi.org/10.24260/alalbab.v6i1.676
  13. Finley, J. S. (2007). Chinese oppression in Xinjiang, middle eastern conflicts and global islamic solidarities among the Uyghurs. Journal of Contemporary China, 16(53), 627–654. https://doi.org/10.1080/10670560701562333
  14. Finnegan, C. (2020). The Uyghur Minority in China: A Case Study of Cultural Genocide, Minority Rights and the Insufficiency of the International Legal Framework in Preventing State-Imposed Extinction. Laws, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/laws9010001
  15. Frankel, J. D. (2016). Chinese-islamic connections: An historical and contemporary overview. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 36(4), 569–583. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602004.2016.1248175
  16. Gorard, S. (2003). Quantitative Methods in Social Science. Continuum.
  17. Hurst, W. (2009). A China Model or Just a Broken Mould? In R. Springborg (Ed.), Development Models in Muslim Contexts: Chinese, “Islamic” and Neo-Liberal Alternative. Edinburgh University Press. http://ecommons.aku.edu/uk_ismc_series_emc%5Cnhttp://ecommons.aku.edu/uk_ismc_series_emc/4
  18. Hyer, E. (2006). China’s policy towards Uighur nationalism. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 26(1), 75–86. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602000600738731
  19. Kenny, S., Fanany, I., & Rahayu, S. (2013). Community development in Indonesia: Westernization or doing it their way? Community Development Journal, 48(2), 280–297. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bss053
  20. Knitter, P. F. (2010). Social work and religious diversity: Problems and possibilities. Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Social Work, 29(3), 256–270. https://doi.org/10.1080/15426432.2010.495632
  21. Kusuma, J. H., & Susilo, S. (2020). Intercultural and religious sensitivity among young Indonesian interfaith groups. Religions, 11(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11010026
  22. Lee, J. (2020). Bonding and bridging social capital and their associations with self-evaluated community resilience: A comparative study of East Asia. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 30(1), 31–44. https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.2420
  23. Leibold, J. (2020). Surveillance in China’s Xinjiang Region: Ethnic Sorting, Coercion, and Inducement. Journal of Contemporary China, 29(121), 46–60. https://doi.org/10.1080/10670564.2019.1621529
  24. Lindsey, E., Stajduhar, K., & McGuinness, L. (2001). Examining the process of community development. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33(6), 828–835. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01722.x
  25. Lo, I. P. Y. (2020). Family formation among lalas (lesbians) in urban China: Strategies for forming families and navigating relationships with families of origin. Journal of Sociology, 56(4), 629–645. https://doi.org/10.1177/1440783320912828
  26. Lu, X. (2020). Social Construction and Social Development in Contemporary China. Routledge.
  27. Mahfud, C. (2018). Chinese Muslim Community Development in Contemporary Indonesia: Experiences of PITI in East Java. Studia Islamika, 25(3), 471–501. https://doi.org/10.15408/sdi.v25i3.6755
  28. Menegon, E. (2017). Matteo Ricci. Journal of Jesuit Studies, 4, 679–753.
  29. Moris, T. (2006). Social Work Research Methods Four Alternative Paradigms. California University Press.
  30. O’Callaghan, P. (2017). Cultural challenges to faith: a reflection on the dynamics of modernity. Church, Communication and Culture, 2(1), 25–40. https://doi.org/10.1080/23753234.2017.1287281
  31. Pillsbury, B. L. K. (1981). Muslim history in China: a 1300‐year chronology. Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs Journal, 3(2), 10–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/02666958108715833
  32. Purnomo, S., Rahayu, E. S., Riani, A. L., Suminah, S., & Udin, U. (2020). Empowerment model for sustainable tourism village in an emerging country. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(2), 261–270. https://doi.org/10.13106/jafeb.2020.vol7.no2.261
  33. Ricci, M. (2016). The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven (T. Meynard (ed.)). Institute of Jesuit Sources.
  34. Roseland, M. (2000). Sustainable community development: Integrating environmental, economic, and social objectives. Progress in Planning, 54(2), 73–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-9006(00)00003-9
  35. Sedmak, C. (2019). Evidence-based dialogue: the relationship between religion and poverty through the lens of randomized controlled trials. Palgrave Communications, 5(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-019-0215-z
  36. Sher, C., & Wu, C. (2018). Fracking in China: Community impacts and public support of shale gas development. Journal of Contemporary China, 27(112), 626–641. https://doi.org/10.1080/10670564.2018.1433591
  37. Snyder, T. (2010). Bloodlands: Europe between Stalin and Hitler. The Bodley Head.
  38. Srivastava, V. K. (2016). Religion and Development: Understanding their Relationship with Reference to Hinduism: A Study Marking the Centenary of Weber’s Religions of India . Social Change, 46(3), 337–354. https://doi.org/10.1177/0049085716654808
  39. Theodori, G. L., & Robinson, C. S. (2019). A note on religious participation and community involvement. Community Development, 50(4), 484–493. https://doi.org/10.1080/15575330.2019.1642924
  40. Wain, A. (2016). Islam in China: The Han Kitab Tradition in the Writings of Wang Daiyu , Ma Zhu and Liu Zhi : With a Note on Their Relevance for Contemporary Islam. Islam and Civilisational Renewal, 7(1), 27–46. https://doi.org/10.12816/0027166
  41. Xu, Q. (2007). Community participation in Urban China: Identifying mobilization factors. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector QuarterlyNonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36(4), 622–642. https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764006297675
  42. Yingsheng, L. (2001). A century of Chinese research on Islamic Central Asian history in retrospect. Cahiers d’Asie Centrale, 9, 115–129.
  43. Yun, S. H. (2013). An analysis of Confucianism’s yin-yang harmony with nature and the traditional oppression of women: Implications for social work practice. Journal of Social Work, 13(6), 582–598. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468017312436445
  44. Zenz, A. (2019). ‘Thoroughly reforming them towards a healthy heart attitude’: China’s political re-education campaign in Xinjiang. Central Asian Survey, 38(1), 102–128. https://doi.org/10.1080/02634937.2018.1507997
  45. Zhang, Y., Xiong, Y., Lee, T. J., Ye, M., & Nunkoo, R. (2021). Sociocultural Sustainability and the Formation of Social Capital from Community-based Tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 60(3), 656–669. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287520933673