Fenomena Social Loafing dalam Program Pemberdayaan Masyarakat di Desa Binaan PMI: Studi Fenomenologi dalam Praktek Pengembangan Masyarakat

Siti Aminah
* UIN Sunan Kalijaga, Yogyakarta

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14421/jpm.2017.011-07

Abstract


Social loafing is the tendency of individuals to give less effort when in groups than when working alone. Social loafing is known to occur as the group size increases, if it is tied, the results obtained from group work are lower than the total work result individually. Group workloads that should be done together and produce a better quality of ideas and quantity of ideas and much the opposite. Observations of researchers in pre-research that many of the work practices of the group ranging from among students, lecturers, institutions that have a social loafing attitude that is not willing to try, do not want to play, do not want to donate energy maximally when in a group/group. So this research using phenomenology approach is used to reveal the personal dimension of the subjective experience involved in PPM, exploring the effect of PPM group in groups on the individual, group impact on task performance, and social loafing attitude on the PPM group. The results illustrate that the tasks of PPM include: to recognize real problems in society, identify and solve them. But the nature of PPM 1 students does awareness of the potential and solution problems that exist in the community. As the group grows, social influence will decrease because the demands of outsiders are divided into many targets. Arousal reduction. The enthusiasm will encourage business in PPM. PPM members who consider their inputs to be less significant in their collective achievements have less effort than those who consider their role as important.

Social loafing adalah kecenderungan individu untuk memberikan usaha yang lebih sedikit ketika dalam kelompok dibandingkan jika ketika bekerja sendirian. Social loafing diketahui semakin terjadi seiring dengan bertambahnya ukuran kelompok, jika ditotalkan, hasil yang diperoleh dari kerja kelompok justru lebih rendah dari total hasil pekerjaan secara individual. Beban kerja kelompok yang seharusnya dikerjakan bersama-sama dan menghasilkan kualitas ide dan kuantitas ide yang lebih bagus dan banyak malah kebalikannya. Pengamatan peneliti dalam pra penelitian bahwa banyak praktekpraktek kerja kelompok mulai dari kalangan mahasiswa, dosen, lembaga-lembaga yang memiliki sikap social loafing yakni sikap tidak mau berusaha, tidak mau berperan, tidak mau menyumbangkan tenaganya secara maksimal ketika berada dalam group/kelompok. Maka penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan fenomenologi digunakan untuk mengungkap dimensi personal pengalaman subjektif yang terlibat dalam PPM, menggali efek kelompok PPM secara berkelompok pada individu, dampak kelompok pada task performance, dan sikap social loafing pada kelompok PPM tersebut. Hasilnya menggambarkan bahwa tugas PPM antara lain: mengenal masalah-masalah riil di masyarakat, mengidentifikasi dan memecahkannya. Tetapi alam PPM 1 mahasiswa melakukan penyadaran akan potensi dan solusi masalah yang ada di masyarakat. Seiring bertambahnya anggota kelompok, pengaruh sosial akan semakin menurun sebab tuntutan pihak luar terbagi pada banyak target. Arousal reduction atau penurunan semangat. Adanya semangat akan mendorong terjadinya usaha dalam PPM. Anggota PPM yang menganggap input yang mereka berikan tidak terlalu signifikan dalam pencapaian kolektif ternyata mengeluarkan usaha yang lebih sedikit dibandingkan mereka yang menganggap bahwa peran mereka sangat penting.


Keywords


social loafing; community development; fenomenologi.

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