Menertawakan Fobia Komunis di Era Reproduksi Digital

Triyono Lukmantoro

Abstract


Abstract. In May-June 2016 issue of the rise of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) and the latent danger of communism appeared again. Excessive fear of PKI and communism continues propagated. That is what is referred to as a communist phobia. But, the issue is considered sensitive that it gave birth to criticism. The phenomenon is the presence of a number of memes comics whose contents laugh hammer and sickle symbol and three communist iconic figures, namely D.N. Aidit, Tan Malaka, and Mao Zedong. Meme comics containing parody to show incongruities that can only happen to the era of digital reproduction. The idea of meme comics can be traced to the thought Walter Benjamin about the works of art in the age of mechanical reproduction. In that era, aura was declining. The crisis and the disappearance of aura increasingly occurs to the time of digital reproduction.


Keywords


Communist-phobia, meme comics, digital reproduction, the decline of aura

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adam, Asvi Warman. 2015. Melawan Lupa, Menepis Stigma: Setelah Prahara 1965. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas. Antaranews.com. 2016. “Aminuddin Kasdi Simpan Fakta Historis Negara Komunis

Indonesia.” Sabtu, 14 Mei, 16:17 WIB.

Bailey, Olga Guedes, Bart Cammaerts, dan Nico Carpentier. 2007. Understanding Alternative Media. New York, NY: Open University Press.

Barret, Terry. 2006/2007. “Approaches to Postmodern Art-Making.” Fate in Review: Foundations in Art: Theory and Education, hal. 1-14.

Benjamin, Walter. 2006. “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.” Hal. 18-40 dalam Media and Cultural Studies, Keyworks: Revised Edition, diedit oleh Meenakshi Gigi.

Durham dan Douglas M. Kellner. Carlton, Victoria: Blackwell Publishing.

Bolter, Jay David, Blair MacIntyre, Maribeth Gandy, dan Petra Schweitzer (2006). “New Media and the Permanent Crisis of Aura.” Convergence: The

International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 12, No. 1, hal. 21-39, DOI: 10.1177/1354856506061550.

Bruce, Bertram C. 2000. “The Work of Art in the Age Digital Reproduction.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, Vol. 44, No. 1 (Sep.), hal. 66-71.

Calka, Michelle. 2015. “Polymediation: The Relationship between Self and Media.” Hal. 15-30 dalam Beyond New Media: Discourse and Critique in a

Polymediated Age, diedit oleh Art Herbig, Andrew F. Herrmann, dan Adam W. Tyma. London: Lexington

Books.

Chandra, Elizabeth. 2013. “From Sensation to Oblivion: Boven Digoel in Sino-Malay Novels.” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land en Volkenkunde, Vol. 169, No. 2/3, hal. 244-278.

Davis, Douglas. 1995. “The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Reproduction (An

Evolving Thesis: 1991-1995).” Leonardo, Vol. 28, No. 5, Third Annual New York Digital Salon, hal. 381-386. Dawkins, Richard. 2006. The Selfish Gene. New York, NY: Oxford Unversity Press. Debord, Guy. 2005. Society of the Spectacle, diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Inggris oleh Ken Knabb. London: Rebel Press.

Dentith, Simon. 2000. Parody. London dan New York: Routledge.

Feith, Herbert. 1964. “President Soekarno, the Army and the Communist: The Triangle Change Shapes.” Asian Survey, Vol. 4, No. 8 (Aug.), hal. 969-980. Harianjogja.com. 2016. “Amien Rais: Komunisme Usang? Ngawur!.” Minggu, 22 Mei, 18:25 WIB.

Heryanto, Ariel. 2004a. “Komunisme.” Kompas, 7 Maret.

. 2004b. “Palu Arit.” Kompas, 19 Desember.

.2016a. “Mencoba Berdamai dengan Sejarah Kelam.” CNN Indonesia, http://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20160420080959-21 125169/mencoba-berdamai-

dengan-sejarah-kelam/, diunggah 20/4/2016, dibaca 7 Desember 2016.

.2016b. “Kapan Kambuhnya Bahaya PKI?.” CNN Indonesia, http://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasi onal/20160510094659-21-129620/kapan

kambuhnya-bahaya-pki/, diunggah 10/5/2016, dibaca 21/11/2016.

Holmes, David. 2005. Communication Theory: Media, Technology, Society. London: Sage Publications.

Jenkins, Henry. 2006. Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers: Exploring Participatory Culture. New York dan London: New York

University Press.

. 2009. Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. Cambridge dan London: The MITPress.

Kang, Jaeho. 2014. Walter Benjamin and the Media: The Spectacle of Modernity.

Cambridge dan Malden, MA: Polity Press.

Kompas.com. 2014. “Harry: Pelarang Bedah Buku "Tan Malaka" Seharusnya Dikenai Sanksi.” Rabu, 12 Februari, 16:46 WIB.

. 2016. “Polisi Sita Kaus Band Kreator yang Bergambar Palu dan Arit.” Senin, 9 Mei, 12:13 WIB.

. 2016. “Punya Baju Bergambar Palu Arit, 4 Pemuda Ditangkap Intel Kodam.” Rabu, 11 Mei, 16:55

WIB.

. 2016. “Ini Alasan Polisi Gencar Razia Simbol-simbol Komunisme.” Kamis, 12 Mei, 13:39 WIB.

.2016. “Kivlan Zen Sebut PKI Bangkit dan Dipimpin Wahyu Setiaji.” Rabu, 1 Juni, 20:39 WIB.

. 2016. “Menurut Kivlan Zen, Wahyu Setiaji Anak Tokoh PKI Njoto.” Kamis, 2 Juni, 15:42 WIB.

. 2016. “Ada Sosok Mirip DN Aidit dalam Lukisan di T3 New Soetta, Ini Penjelasan AP II.” Jumat, 12

Agustus, 14:38 WIB.

. 2016. “Cinta tapi Benci, China Peringati 40 Tahun Kematian Mao Zedong.” Jumat, 9 September 2016, 23:07 WIB.

Lessig, Lawrence. 2001. The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in A Connected World. New York, NY:

Random House.

. 2004. Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity. New York, NY: The Penguin Press.

Malaka, Tan. 1922. “Komunisme dan Pan Islamisme.” Diterjemahkan oleh Arief Chandra, Agustus 2009. Diakses pada 25 November 2016 (https://www.marxists.org/indonesi a/archive/malaka/1922-PanIslamisme.htm).

Marks, Isaac M. 1969. Fears and Phobias. New York: Academic Press.

Magnis-Suseno, Franz. 2013. Dari Mao ke Marcuse: Percikan Filsafat Marxis Pasca Lenin. Jakarta: Gramedia.

Meisner, Maurice. 2007. Mao Zedong: A Political and Intellectual Portrait. Cambridge: Polity.

Merrifield, Andy. 2005. Guy Debord. London: Reaktion Books.

Milligan, Tony. 2013. Civil Disobedience: Protest, Justification, and the Law. New York, NY: Bloomsbury.

Morreall, John. 2009. Comic Relief: A Comprehensive Philosophy. West Sussex:

Wiley-Blackwell.

Mrazek, Rudolf. 1972. “Tan Malaka: A Political Personality’s Structure of Experience.” Indonesia, No. 14 (Oct.), hal. 1-48.

Perloff, Richard M. 2014. The Dynamics of Political Communication: Media and Politics in A Digital Age. New

York dan London: Routledge.

Rundjan, Rahadian. 2015. “Soeharto Tantang Rambo di Lapangan Golf.” Historia, 28 Juli.

Szablewics, Marcella. 2014. “The ‘Losers’ of China’s Internet: Memes as ‘Structures of Feeling’ for Disillusioned Young Netizens.” China Information, Vol. 28 (2), hal. 259-275.

Seri Buku Tempo: Bapak Bangsa. 2010. Tan Malaka: Bapak Republik yang Dilupakan. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia dan Tempo.

Seri Buku Tempo: Orang Kiri Indonesia. 2010. Aidit: Dua Wajah Dipa Nusantara. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia dan Tempo.

Shifman, Limor. 2014. Memes in Digital Culture. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Tempo Interaktif. 2001. “AKBB Mengutuk Aksi Sweeping Buku ‘Kiri’.” Selasa, 8 Mei, 14:59 WIB.

Trier, James. 2007. “Guy Debord’s “The Society of the Spectacle.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Sep.), hal. 68-73.

Van Der Kroef, J.M. 1972. “Origins of the 1965 Coup in Indonesia: Probabilities and

Alternatives.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Sep.), hal. 277-298.

Zedong, Mao. 1957. “On the Correct Handling of Contradictions among the People.” Diakses pada 25 November 2016 (https://www.marxists.org/referenc e/archive/mao/selected-works/volume 5/mswv5_58.htm).




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14421/pjk.v10i1.1221

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.