Media Violence and Quality of Life among Young Children and Youth in Sialkot, Pakistan

  • Salbia Abbas Department of Psychology, Govt. College Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan
  • Rabia Jami Department of Psychology, Govt. College Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan
  • Laiba Iddress Department of Psychology, Govt. College Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan
  • Saira Abbas Department of Psychology, Govt. College Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan
  • Khuzaifa Bibi Department of Psychology, Govt. College Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan
Keywords: Media violence, Quality of life, Young children, Youth

Abstract

Purpose – Media has proved to be a handy tool in education, arts, science, sports, and culture. People spend most of their time watching television, playing video games, and surfing the internet. This study aims to identify how violence in media affects the quality of life among children and youth.
Design/methods/approach – A random sample of 181 individuals ranging in age from 7 to 24 was collected online using a Google form questionnaire. An organized self-report Questionnaire had four segments: 1) Consent Form; 2) Demographic Information of Participant; 3) The Content-based Media Exposure Scale(C-ME); 4) Quality of Life Scale (QOL). First part of C-ME shows that exposure to anti-social media content had a negative relationship with quality of life scale [r= -.189, n= 181, P= .011] while second part of C-ME (neutral items) had a positive relationship with quality of life scale [r= .265, n= 181, P= .00].
Findings – Findings of this study suggest that lower quality of life is a genuine and developing phenomenon among young children and youth. Training programs for guidance about media content should be customized to be reasonable for each social setting.
Research implications/limitations – Sample size could be increased due to compliance with COVID-19 SOP. Online data were collected via Google forms. More research is required to eradicate this issue among children and youth, turning into aggression later in life. This study welcomes all upcoming researchers to work on this for better results.
Practical implications – The results of this study show a positive relationship between media violence and quality of life among young children. The quality of life is highly deteriorating because of anti-social media content in various countries. It shows that lower quality of life is a genuine and developing phenomenon among young children and youth. Training programs for guidance about media content should be customized to eradicate current issues in the community.
Originality/value – Results of this study highlight the relationship between media content and the quality of life of young children and youth, but this broad topic still requests conclusive discussion and research worldwide.

Paper type Research paper

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). The effects of media violence on society. Science, 295(5564), 2377–2379. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1070765

Bartholow, B. D., Sestir, M. A., & Davis, E. B. (2005). Correlates and consequences of exposure to video game violence: Hostile personality, empathy, and aggressive behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(11), 1573–1586. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167205277205

Björkqvist, K. (1985). Violent films, anxiety and aggression : experimental studies of the effect of violent films on the level of anxiety and aggressiveness in children. Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters.

Björkqvist, K. (1985). Violent films, anxiety and aggression : experimental studies of the effect of violent films on the level of anxiety and aggressiveness in children. Helsinki : Societas Scientiarum Fennica.

Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts versus media misinformation. In American Psychologist (Vol. 56, Issues 6–7, pp. 477–489). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.6-7.477

Buss, A. H. (1961). The psychology of aggression. Wiley.

Coyne, S. M., Rogers, A. A., Zurcher, J. D., Stockdale, L., & Booth, M. (2020). Does time spent using social media impact mental health?: An eight-year longitudinal study. Computers in Human Behavior, 104, 106160. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.106160

den Hamer, A. H., Konijn, E. A., Plaisier, X. S., Keijer, M. G., Krabbendam, L. C., & Bushman, B. J. (2017). The Content-based Media Exposure Scale (C-ME): Development and Validation. Computers in Human Behavior, 72, 549–557. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.02.050

DeWall, C. N., Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2011). The general aggression model: Theoretical extensions to violence. Psychology of Violence, 1(3), 245–258. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023842

Dittrick, C. J., Beran, T. N., Mishna, F., Hetherington, R., & Shariff, S. (2013). Do Children Who Bully Their Peers Also Play Violent Video Games? A Canadian National Study. Journal of School Violence, 12(4), 297–318. https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2013.803244

DOGUTAS, A. (2013). The Influence of Media Violence on Children. Journal of Faculty of Education, 2(1), 107–126.

Escobar-Viera, C. G., Whitfield, D. L., Wessel, C. B., Shensa, A., Sidani, J. E., Brown, A. L., Chandler, C. J., Hoffman, B. L., Marshal, M. P., & Primack, B. A. (2018). For Better or for Worse? A Systematic Review of the Evidence on Social Media Use and Depression Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Minorities. JMIR Mental Health, 5(3), e10496. https://doi.org/10.2196/10496

Foerster, M., & Röösli, M. (2017). A latent class analysis on adolescents media use and associations with health-related quality of life. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 266–274. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.02.015

Geen, R.G., & Thomas, S. L. (1986). Immediate Effects of Media Violence on Behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 42(3), 7–27.

Geen, Russell G. (1990). Human Aggression. Pacific Grove.

Gentile, D. A., Li, D., Khoo, A., Prot, S., & Anderson, C. A. (2014). Mediators and moderators of long-term effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior: practice, thinking, and action. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(5), 450–457. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.63

Hale, L., & Guan, S. (2015). Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 21, 50–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2014.07.007

Hilal Bashir, & Shabir Ahmad Bhat. (2017). Effects of Social Media on Mental Health: A Review. International Journal of Indian Psychology, 4(3). https://doi.org/10.25215/0403.134

Hinde, R. A., & Groebel, J. (1991). Cooperation and Prosocial Behaviour. Cambridge University Press.

Huesmann, L. R. (2007). The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, S6–S13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.09.005

Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Smailes, E. M., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. S. (2002). Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science, 295(5564), 2468–2471. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1062929

Kenney, E. L., & Gortmaker, S. L. (2017). United States Adolescents’ Television, Computer, Videogame, Smartphone, and Tablet Use: Associations with Sugary Drinks, Sleep, Physical Activity, and Obesity. The Journal of Pediatrics, 182, 144–149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.11.015

Li, S., Jin, X., Wu, S., Jiang, F., Yan, C., & Shen, X. (2007). The impact of media use on sleep patterns and sleep disorders among school-aged children in China. Sleep, 30(3), 361–367. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/30.3.361

Murray, J. P., Rubinstein, E. A., & Comstock, G. A. (1972). Television and Social Behavior: A Technical Report to the Surgeon General’s Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior. National Institute of Mental Health.

Padgaonar, L. (1999). The Killing Screen: Violence on Television and its Impact on Children A Public Hearing. The United Nations Education; Scientific and Cultural Organisation.

Rahanam, M. A., & Khan, A. A. (2016). The Impact of Media-Violence on Children and Adolescents: A Sociological Analysis. Journal of Science and Technology, 14(1), 26–31.

Raji, S. O., Owumi, B. E., & Aliyu, T. K. (2014). Media violence affects children’s health and aggressive behavior in Osun State, Nigeria.

Rideout, V. J., Foehr, U. G., Roberts, D. F., & Brodie, M. (1999). Kids & media @ the new millennium. A Kaiser Family Foundation Report.

Schoeni, A., Roser, K., & Röösli, M. (2015). Symptoms and Cognitive Functions in Adolescents in Relation to Mobile Phone Use during Night. PLOS ONE, 10(7), e0133528. https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0133528

Stiglic, N., & Viner, R. M. (2019). Effects of screentime on the health and well-being of children and adolescents: a systematic review of reviews. BMJ Open, 9(1), e023191. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023191

Stoff, D. M., Breiling, J., & Maser, J. D. (1977). Handbook of Antisocial Behavior. John Wiley & Sons.

Tanwar, K., & Priyanka. (2016). Impact of Media Violence on Children’s Aggressive Behaviour. Indian Journal of Research, 5(6), 241–245.

Ukoha, E. K. (2013). Media Violence and Violent Behaviour of Nigerian Youths: Intervention Strategies. African Journal Online (AJOL), 21(3).

Woodard, E. H., & Gridina, N. (2000). Media in the Home. The Annenberg Public Center.

Published
2021-12-31
How to Cite
Abbas, S., Jami, R., Iddress, L., Abbas, S., & Bibi, K. (2021). Media Violence and Quality of Life among Young Children and Youth in Sialkot, Pakistan. Al-Athfal: Jurnal Pendidikan Anak, 7(2), 167-176. https://doi.org/10.14421/al-athfal.2021.72-07
Section
Articles