The Combination of Imaginative Teaching Methods and Multimedia Learning in Early Childhood Education during COVID Pandemic: Social-Emotional and Language Development
The purpose of this study was to identify whether there is an increase in social-emotional and language aspects’ enhancement through the combination of imaginative teaching methods and multimedia learning that the teacher carried out. This study is based on the impact of the viral pandemic, limiting learning activities and social relationships between children and peers, which can further impact children's socio-emotional and language aspects. However, teachers can overcome impact by providing appropriate stimulation to children through learning strategies, i.e., by combining imaginative methods and multimedia learning. The is a quantitative study that applies the pre-experimental design method. The model applied through this research was in the form of a pretest-posttest group which was carried out by comparing the emotional abilities of children before and after being given treatment in the form of a combination of imaginative processing methods and multimedia learning. The sampling technique used purposive sampling where the research subjects were in their early childhood, aged 5-6 years. The reliability testing results obtained a value of 0.893 for social-emotional development and 0.821 for language development, which means high reliability. The normality test is carried out using the Kolmogorov Smirnov test showing a value of 0.347 for social-emotional development and 0.527 for language development; this indicates that the data have a normal distribution because they have a value above 0.05. The t-test results show that all t count> t-table and all sig values are 0.000 <0.05. Therefore, the combination of imaginative learning methods and multimedia learning improves language social-emotional aspects effectively. The results of this study contribute to understanding for teachers and school institutions to better utilize information and communication technology in optimizing child development.
Abdulrahaman, M. D., Faruk, N., Oloyede, A. A., Surajudeen-Bakinde, N. T., Olawoyin, L. A., Mejabi, O. V., … Azeez, A. L. (2020). Multimedia tools in the teaching and learning processes: A systematic review. Heliyon. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05312
Almarabeh, H., Amer, E. F., & Sulieman, A. (2015). The Effectiveness of Multimedia Learning Tools in Education.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
Belsky, J., & De Haan, M. (2011). Annual research review: Parenting and children’s brain development: The end of the beginning. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(4), 409-428. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02281.x
Benner, A. D., & Mistry, R. S. (2020). Child Development During the COVID-19 Pandemic Through a Life Course Theory Lens. Child Development Perspectives, 14(4), 236-243. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12387
Betrancourt, M. (2012). The Animation and Interactivity Principles in Multimedia Learning. In The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning, 287-296. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511816819.019
Black, M. M., Walker, S. P., Fernald, L. C. H., Andersen, C. T., DiGirolamo, A. M., Lu, C., … Grantham-McGregor, S. (2017). Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course. The Lancet, 389(10064), 77-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31389-7
Boons, T., De Raeve, L., Langereis, M., Peeraer, L., Wouters, J., & van Wieringen, A. (2013). Expressive vocabulary, morphology, syntax and narrative skills in profoundly deaf children after early cochlear implantation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(6), 2008-2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2013.03.003
Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., & Salovey, P. (2011). Emotional intelligence: Implications for personal, social, academic, and workplace success. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5I(1), 88-108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00334.x
Bus, A. G., Takacs, Z. K., & Kegel, C. A. T. (2015). Affordances and limitations of electronic storybooks for young children’s emergent literacy. Developmental Review, 35, 79-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2014.12.004
Clark, R. E., & Feldon, D. F. (2014). Ten common but questionable principles of multimedia learning. In The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning, Second Edition. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139547369.009
Cooper, D., & Higgins, S. (2015). The effectiveness of online instructional videos in the acquisition and demonstration of cognitive, affective and psychomotor rehabilitation skills. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(4), 768-779. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12166
D’Amico, A. (2018). The use of technology in the promotion of Children’s Emotional Intelligence: The multimedia program “Developing Emotional Intelligence.” International Journal of Emotional Education, 10(1), 47-67. https://www.um.edu.mt/library/oar/handle/123456789/29675.
Dudley, P. (2013). Teacher learning in Lesson Study: What interaction-level discourse analysis revealed about how teachers utilised imagination, tacit knowledge of teaching and fresh evidence of pupils learning, to develop practice knowledge and so enhance their pupils’ lea. Teaching and Teacher Education, 34, 107-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2013.04.006
Early Childhood Indicators of Progress: Minnesota’s Early Learning Standards. (n.d.). In Minnesota Department of Education. Roseville.
Egan, K., & Judson, G. (2009). Values and imagination in teaching: With a special focus on social studies. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 41(2), 126-140. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-5812.2008.00455.x
Hadzigeorgiou, Y., & Fotinos, N. (2007). Imaginative Thinking and the Learning of Science. Science Education Review, 6, 15-22.
Harris, J., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2011). Lessons from the crib for the classroom: How children really learn vocabulary. In Handbook of Early Literacy Research. The Guilford Press.
Hodges, K., Kline, J., Stern, L., Cytryn, L., & McKnew, D. (1982). The development of a child assessment interview for research and clinical use. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10(2), 173-189. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00915939
Imran, N., Zeshan, M., & Pervaiz, Z. (2020). Mental health considerations for children & adolescents in covid-19 pandemic. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 36. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.COVID19-S4.2759
Jennings, P. A. (2014). Early Childhood Teachers’ Well-Being, Mindfulness, and Self-Compassion in Relation to Classroom Quality and Attitudes Towards Challenging Students. Mindfulness, 6(4), 732-743. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-014-0312-4
Koh, J. H. L., Chai, C. S., Wong, B., & Hong, H. Y. (2015). Design thinking for education: Conceptions and applications in teaching and learning. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-444-3
Lederberg, A. R., Schick, B., & Spencer, P. E. (2013). Language and literacy development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children: successes and challenges. Developmental Psychology, 49(1), 15-30. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029558
Lian, B., Kristiawan, M., & Fitriya, R. (2018). Giving creativity room to students through the friendly school’s program. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 7(7), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/zebpd
Malti, T., & Noam, G. G. (2016). Social-emotional development: From theory to practice. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 13(6), 652–665. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2016.1196178
Mayer, R. E. (2017). Using multimedia for e-learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 33(5), 403-423. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12197
Mayer, Richard E. (2014). Cognitive theory of multimedia learning. In The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning, Second Edition. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139547369.005
Mayer, Richard E., & Fiorella, L. (2014). Principles for reducing extraneous processing in multimedia learning: Coherence, signaling, redundancy, spatial contiguity, and temporal contiguity principles. In The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning, Second Edition. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139547369.015
McNeill, K. L., & Pimentel, D. S. (2010). Scientific discourse in three urban classrooms: The role of the teacher in engaging high school students in argumentation. Science Education, 94(2), 203-229. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20364
Moore, R. C. (2017). Childhood’s domain: Play and place in child development. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315121895
NIDCD. (2010). Speech and Language Developmental Milestones. National Institutes of Health.
Nilsson, M., Ferholt, B., & Lecusay, R. (2018). ‘The playing-exploring child’: Reconceptualizing the relationship between play and learning in early childhood education. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood. https://doi.org/10.1177/1463949117710800
Tinedi, V., Yohandri, Y., & Djamas, D. (2018). How Games are Designed to Increase Students’ Motivation in Learning Physics? A Literature Review. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/335/1/012065
Walsh, C., Chappell, K., & Craft, A. (2017). A co-creativity theoretical framework to foster and evaluate the presence of wise humanising creativity in virtual learning environments (VLEs). Thinking Skills and Creativity, 24, 228-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2017.01.001
Wasik, B. A., & Iannone-Campbell, C. (2012). Developing vocabulary through purposeful, strategic conversations. The Reading Teacher, 66(4), 321-332. https://doi.org/10.1002/TRTR.01095
Williford, A. P., Vick Whittaker, J. E., Vitiello, V. E., & Downer, J. T. (2013). Children’s Engagement Within the Preschool Classroom and Their Development of Self-Regulation. Early Education and Development, 24(2), 162-187. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2011.628270
Yafie, E. (2017). Development Game Edutainment Combined with Multimedia Learning to Improve Cognitive and Naturalistic Intelligence At 5–6 Years Old Kindergarten. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference for Science Educators and Teachers (ICSET). Atlantis Press. https://doi.org/10.2991/icset-17.2017.97
Yafie, E., Giavarini, I., & Maulidia, L. N. (2020). Stimulating Strategy Children Experiencing Late Language Emergence (LLE) During Pandemic Covid-19. Proceedings of the 2nd Early Childhood and Primary Childhood Education (ECPE 2020). https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.201112.034
Yafie, E., Nirmala, B., Kurniawaty, L., Bakri, T. S. M., Hani, A. B., & Setyaningsih, D. (2020). Supporting cognitive development through multimedia learning and scientific approach: An experimental study in preschool. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(11C), 113-123. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.082313
Yarbro, J., McKnight, K., Elliott, S., Kurz, A., & Wardlow, L. (2016). Digital Instructional Strategies and Their Role in Classroom Learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 48(4), 274-289. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2016.1212632
Zhang, D., Islam, M. M., & Lu, G. (2012). A review on automatic image annotation techniques. Pattern Recognition, 45(1), 346-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.patcog.2011.05.013
Zimmermann, P., & Curtis, N. (2020). Coronavirus infections in children including COVID-19: An overview of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention options in children. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 39(5), 355-368. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002660
Copyright (c) 2021 Evania Yafie, Olusola-Fadumiye Titilope Olufunke, Manal Ali, Inayatur Robbaniyah, Lisa Nur Maulidia, Diana Setyaningsih
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.