The Attitude of Help-Seeking Behavior Preventing from Mental Health Problems among Adolescents Living in District of Bondowoso


  • Nandy Agustin Syakarofath Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang
  • Dian Caesaria Widyasari Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang



Adolescent, Externalizing Problems, Help-seeking, Internalizing Problems, SDQ.


The onset of mental health problems during adolescence often manifests into internalizing and externalizing problems. Seeking help to deal with mental health problems suggested better well-being outcomes. This study investigated the contribution of attitude and intention of seeking help for mental health problems among adolescents. Further analysis examined preferences of formal and informal mental health providers and gender-related patterns on help-seeking behaviors and mental health problems among adolescents. A total of 300 adolescents based on multistage random sampling (mean age = 16.49, male = 131 (43.7%), female = 169 (56.3%)) were selected to participate in this study. They completed three questionnaires online, including The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Mental Help Seeking Intention Scale (MHSIS) and Mental Help-Seeking Attitudes Scale (MHSAS). The results showed that attitude to help-seeking contributes significantly to adolescents internalizing and externalizing problems. Female adolescents were more susceptible to experiencing internalizing and externalizing problems. They showed a more positive attitude and stronger intention to seek mental health assistance than their male counterparts. Finally, teachers and friends are the preferred sources of help in dealing with mental health problems.


Munculnya masalah kesehatan mental pada masa remaja seringkali bermanifestasi menjadi masalah internalisasi dan eksternalisasi. Mencari bantuan untuk menangani masalah kesehatan mental menunjukkan hasil kesejahteraan yang lebih baik. Penelitian ini menyelidiki kontribusi sikap dan niat mencari bantuan untuk masalah kesehatan mental di kalangan remaja. Analisis lebih lanjut memeriksa preferensi penyedia kesehatan mental formal dan informal dan pola terkait gender pada perilaku mencari bantuan dan masalah kesehatan mental di kalangan remaja. Sebanyak 300 remaja berdasarkan multistage random sampling (usia rata-rata = 16,49, laki-laki = 131 (43,7%), perempuan = 169 (56,3%)) dipilih untuk berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini. Mereka mengisi tiga kuesioner online, termasuk Kuesioner Kekuatan dan Kesulitan (SDQ), Skala Niat Mencari Bantuan Mental (MHSIS) dan Skala Sikap Mencari Bantuan Mental (MHSAS). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sikap mencari pertolongan berkontribusi secara signifikan terhadap internalisasi dan eksternalisasi masalah remaja. Remaja putri lebih rentan mengalami masalah internalisasi dan eksternalisasi. Mereka menunjukkan sikap yang lebih positif dan niat yang lebih kuat untuk mencari bantuan kesehatan mental daripada rekan pria mereka. Terakhir, guru dan teman adalah sumber bantuan yang lebih disukai dalam menangani masalah kesehatan mental.


Agency of Health Research and Development Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2013). Riset Kesehatan Dasar. Riset Kesehatan Dasar. March 4, 2013. Retrieved from das2013

Agency of Health Research and Development Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2018). Riset Kesehatan Dasar. Riset Kesehatan Dasar. March 4, 2018. Retrieved from riskesdas-2018.pdf

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders(DSM-5) (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

Andersson, L. M. C., Schierenbeck, I., Strumpher, J., Krantz, G., Topper, K., Backman, G., ... Van Rooyen, D. (2013). Help-seeking behaviour, barriers to care and experiences of care among persons with depression in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Journal of Affective Disorders. 151(2): 439–448.

Arnault, D.S. (2009). Cultural determinants of help seeking: A model for research and practice. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice. 23(4): 259–278.

Bitman-Heinrichs, R. L. (2017). From attitude to intent to action: Predictors of psychological help-seeking behavior among clinically distressed adults. Graduate Theses and Dissertations. 16098.

Bonabi, H., Müller, M., Ajdacic-Gross, V., Eisele, J., Rodgers, S., al. (2016). Mental health literacy, attitudes to help-seeking, and perceived need as predictors of mental health service use: A longitudinal study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 204(4): 321-324.

Brown, J.S., Evans-Lacko, S., Aschan, L. et al. (2014). Seeking informal and formal help for mental health problems in the community: A secondary analysis from a psychiatric morbidity survey in South London. BMC Psychiatry. 14(1); 1-15.

Central Bureau of Statistics. (2010). Juvenile crime profile. BPS.Jakarta.

D'Avanzo, B., Barbato, A., Erzegovesi, S., Lampertico, L., Rapisarda, F., & Valsecchi, L. .(2012). Formal and informal help-seeking for mental health problems. A survey of preferences of Italian students. Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health: CP & EMH. 8: 47–51.

Disabato, D. J., Short, J. L., Lameira, D. M., Bagley, K. D., & Wong, S. J. (2018). Predicting help-seeking behavior: The impact of knowing someone close who has sought help. Journal of American College Health. 66(8): 731-738.

Ediati, A. (2015). Profil problem emosi/ perilaku pada remaja pelajar SMP-SMA di Kota Semarang. Jurnal Psikologi. 14(2): 190-198.

Fox, J. C., Blank, M., Rovnyak, V. G., & Barnett, R. Y. (2001). Barriers to help-seeking for mental disorders in an impoverished rural population. Community Mental Health Journal. 37(5), 421–436.

Goodman, A., Lamping, D.L., & Ploubidis, G.B., (2010). When to use broader internalizing and externalizing subscales instead of the hypothesized five subscales on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): Data from British parents, teachers and children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 38; 1179-1191.

Goodman, A., & Goodman, R. (2009). Strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a dimensional measure of child mental health. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 48(4); 400-403.

Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A research note. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry. 38(5); 581-586.

Goodman, R., Meltzer, H.,& Bailey, V. (1998). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A pilot study on the validity of the self-report version. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 7(3); 125-130.

Hammarström, A., Korhonen, J., Blomqvist, I., & Hägglöf, B. (2017). Increase of internalized mental health symptoms over the last 33 years among adolescents. European Journal of Public Health. 27 (suppl_3).

Hammer, J. H., & Spiker, D. A. (2018). Dimensionality, Reliability, and Predictive Evidence of Validity for Three Help Seeking Intention Instruments: ISCI, GHSQ, and MHSIS. Journal of Counselling Psychology. 65; 394-401.

Indrijati, H., Mastuti, E., & Prihastuti, P. (2018). Internet usage and juvenile delinquency of high school students in Surabaya Indonesia. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Education. 4(1); 79-85.

Patel, V., Minas, H., Cohen, A., & Prince, M. (2014). Global mental health: Principles and practice (p. 401-424). New York: Oxford University Press.

Kerebih, H., Abera, M., & Soboka, M. (2017). Pattern of help-seeking behavior for common mental disorders among urban residents in Southwest Ethiopia. Qual Prim Care. 25(4), 208-16.

Kohn, R., Saxena, S., Levav, I., & Saraceno, B. (2004). The treatment gap in mental health care. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 82(11); 858– 866.

Kuehner, C. (2017). Why is depression more common among women than among men?. Lancet Psychiatry. 4(2), 146-158.

Lesmana, C. B. J., Suryani, L. K., & Tiliopoulos, N. (2015). Cultural considerations in the treatment of mental illness among sexually abused children and adolescents: The case of Bali, Indonesia. In E. L. Grigorenko (Ed.), The global context for new directions for child and adolescent development. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development. 147:109–116.

Lukens-Bull, R. A (2005). Peaceful Jihad: Negotiating Identity and Modernity in Muslim Java New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lutfi, A. Z. (2020). The Phenomenon of Underage Motorbike Riders in Junior High School Students: A Critical Review of Juvenile Delinquency. Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities. 10(2); 121-134.

Mak, H.W. & Davis, J.M. (2013). The application of the theory of planned behavior to help-seeking intention in a Chinese society. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 1–15.

McBain, R., Salhi, C., Morris, J. E., Salomon, J. A., & Betancourt,T. S. (2012). Disease burden and mental health system capacity: WHO Atlas study of 117 low- and middle-income countries. British Journal of Psychiatry. 201(6); 444-540.

Mehta, N., & Thornicroft, G. (2014). Stigma, discrimination, and promoting human rights. In V. Patel, H. Minas, A. Cohen, & M. J. Prince (Eds.), Global mental health: Principles and practice (pp. 401–424). Oxford University Press.

Mortenson, S. T. (2009). Interpersonal Trust and Social Skill in Seeking Social Support Among Chinese and Americans. Communication Research. 36(1); 32–53.

Norman, J. (2004). At the heart of education: School chaplaincy and pastoral care. Dublin: Veritas.

Novianty, A. & Hadjam, N,R. (2017). Literasi kesehatan mental dan sikap komunitas sebagai prediktor pencarian pertolongan formal. Jurnal Psikologi. 44(1); 50-65.

Nurdin, A. (2012). Komunikasi magis dukun (studi fenomenologi tentang kompetensi komunikasi dukun. Jurnal Komunikasi. 1(5).

Nurhayati, S.R. (2013). Sikap dan intensi mencari bantuan dalam menghadapi masalah. Jurnal Penelitian Humaniora. 18(1); 92-100.

Rochmawati E, Wiechula R, & Cameron K. (2018). Centrality of spirituality/religion in the culture of palliative care service in Indonesia: An ethnographic study. Nursing and Health Science. 20:231–237. nhs.12407

Ratnayake, P., & Hyde, C. (2019). Mental health literacy, help-seeking behaviour and well-being in young people: Implications for practice. The Educational and Developmental Psychologist. 36, 16 - 21.

Rickwood, D., Deane, F. P., Wilson, C. J., & Ciarrochi, J. (2005). Young people's help-seeking for mental health problems. AeJAMH (Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health). 4(3).

Rickwood, D., Deane, F. P., & Wilson, C. J. (2007). When and how do young people seek professional help for mental health problems?. The Medical journal of Australia. 187(7):S35-S39.

Rosenfield, S., & Smith, D. (2010). Gender and mental health: Do men and women have different amounts or types of problems? In T. L. Scheid & T. N. Brown (Eds.), A handbook for the study of mental health: Social contexts, theories, and systems (p. 256–267). Cambridge University Press

Salim, A.Z. (2014). Keterkaitan antara stigma, keyakinan, dan niat keluarga dalam mencari pertolongan untuk anggota keluarga yang rentan mengalami gangguan mental di Yogyakarta. (Disertasi tidak Dipublikasikan). Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.

Skogli, E.W., Teicher, M.H., Andersen, P.N., Hovik, K.T & Øie, M. (2013). ADHD in girls and boys – gender differences in co-existing symptoms and executive function measures. BMC Psychiatry. 13(298):

Subandi & Utami, M.S. (2016). Pola perilaku mencari bantuan pada keluarga pasien gangguan jiwa. Buletin Psikologi. Retrived from

Sun, K. S., Lam, T. P., Lam, K. F., Lo, T. L., Chao, D.V. K., & Lam, E.W. (2016). Barriers of Chinese primary care attenders to seeking help for psychological distress in Hong Kong. Journal of Affective Disorders. 196, 164–170.

Syakarofath, N. A., & Subandi, S. (2019). Faktor ayah dan ibu yang berkontribusi terhadap munculnya gejala perilaku disruptif remaja. Jurnal Psikologi. 18(2), 230-244.

Trotman, H.D., Holtzman, C.W., Ryan, A.T., Shapiro, D.I., MacDonald, A.N., Goulding, S.M., … Walker, E.F. (2013). The development of psychotic disorders in adolescence: A potential role for hormones. Hormones and Behavior. 64, 411-419.

Umubyeyi, A., Mogren, I., Ntaganira, J., & Krantz, G. (2016). Help-seeking behaviours, barriers to care and self-efficacy for seeking mental health care: a population-based study in Rwanda. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatry Epidemiology. 51; 81–92.

Utari, I. S., Sumardiana, B., Sastroadmodjo, S., & Ramada, D. P. (2019). Social controls and trends juvenile delinquency: Criminology study about the complexity of child delinquency in society. In 1st International Conference on Education Social Sciences and Humanities. ICESSHum 858-863. Atlantis Press.

Walker, E., & Bollini, A.M. (2002). Pubertal neurodevelopment and the emergence of psychotic symptoms. Schizophrenia Research. 54, 17-23.

Walker, E.F., Walder, D.J., & Reynolds, F. (2001). Developmental changes in cortisol secretion in normal and at-risk youth. Development and Psychopathology. 13, 721-732.

Wiguna, T., Manengkei, P. S. K., Pamela, C., Rheza, A. M., & Hapsari, W. A. (2010). Masalah emosi & perilaku pada anak & remaja di poliklinik jiwa anak & remaja RSUPNdr. Ciptomangunkusumo (RSCM). JurnalSari Pediatri, 12(4), 270–277.

Woldemichael MT, Broesterhuizen M, Liègeois A. (2013). Christian Pastoral Care and Psychotherapy: A Need for Theoretical Clarity. Journal of Pastoral Care & Counselling . 67(4):1-13.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2009). Improving health systems and services for mental health. Geneva: World Health Organization. Accessed from policy/services/mhsystems/en/

Xu Z, Huang F, Kösters M, Staiger T, Becker T, Thornicroft G, Rüsch N. (2018). Effectiveness of interventions to promote help-seeking for mental health problems: systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine,48(16), 2658-2667.




How to Cite

The Attitude of Help-Seeking Behavior Preventing from Mental Health Problems among Adolescents Living in District of Bondowoso. (2023). Jurnal Psikologi Integratif, 11(1), 25-39.