Tourism is one of the most affected industries by the COVID-19 pandemic. Globally, in less than 6 months after the outbreak of the epidemic, this sector experienced a decline of up to 74%--as it set back to 1990s. However, many tourism-related studies include the keyword or even the title 'post-pandemic' which implies a nuance of optimism for the tourism sector. Using a systematic literature review (SLR), this article explores studies that include keywords and topics 'post-pandemic' in global and Indonesian contexts. Three main points were found: First, there is a global fact that local scale tourism is more sustainable than regional and international tourism. Second, behind the losses due to the decline in income during the pandemic, there is a hidden benefit in the form of restoring natural resources that have been damaged by tourism activities. Third, the emergence of a more systematic mapping of tourist preferences in determining tourist destinations and activities, which is more oriented towards safety, health, and strengthening social relationships with family and colleagues rather than excitement and offering lower cost discounts. The article also found that most post-pandemic tourism recommendations tend to be non-operational due to their failure to provide an operational definition of what the meaning of 'post-pandemic'.

Pariwisata merupakan salah satu industri yang paling terdampak akibat pandemi Covid-19. Secara global, dalam waktu kurang dari 6 bulan setelah mewabahnya epidemi, sektor ini mengalami penurunan hingga 74%--kembali ke volume tahun 1990. Namun, banyak penelitian terkait pariwisata memasukkan kata kunci atau bahkan judul 'pasca pandemi' yang menyiratkan nuansa optimisme terhadap sektor ini untuk bangkit. Dengan menggunakan sistematika literature review (SLR), artikel ini mengeksplorasi kajian yang memasukkan kata kunci dan topik 'pasca-pandemi' dalam konteks global dan Indonesia. Tiga poin utama ditemukan: Pertama, adanya fakta global bahwa pariwisata skala lokal lebih berkelanjutan daripada pariwisata regional dan internasional. Kedua, di balik kerugian akibat penurunan pendapatan selama pandemi, terdapat keuntungan tersembunyi berupa pemulihan sumber daya alam yang telah rusak akibat kegiatan pariwisata. Ketiga, munculnya pemetaan preferensi wisatawan yang lebih sistematis dalam menentukan destinasi dan kegiatan wisata, yang lebih berorientasi pada keselamatan, kesehatan, dan penguatan hubungan sosial dengan keluarga dan rekan kerja daripada kegembiraan dan penawaran diskon biaya yang lebih rendah. Artikel tersebut juga menemukan bahwa sebagian besar rekomendasi pariwisata pasca-pandemi cenderung tidak operasional karena kegagalan mereka untuk memberikan definisi operasional tentang apa itu 'pasca-pandemi'.


Sustainable Economy
Social Policy


  1. Aburumman, A. A. (2020). COVID-19 impact and survival strategy in business tourism market: the example of the UAE MICE industry. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 7(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-020-00630-8
  2. Açikgöz, Ö., & Günay, A. (2020). The early impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the global and Turkish economy. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 50(SI-1), 520–526. https://doi.org/10.3906/sag-2004-6
  3. Adam, N. A., & Alarifi, G. (2021). Innovation practices for survival of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the COVID-19 times: the role of external support. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13731-021-00156-6
  4. Adams, K. M., Choe, J., Mostafanezhad, M., & Phi, G. T. (2021). (Post-) pandemic tourism resiliency: Southeast Asian lives and livelihoods in limbo. Tourism Geographies, 23(4), 915–936. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2021.1916584
  5. Adinolfi, M. C., Harilal, V., & Giddy, J. K. (2021). Travel Stokvels, Leisure on Lay-by, and Pay at Your Pace Options: the Post COVID-19 Domestic Tourism Landscape in South Africa. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 10(1), 302–317. https://doi.org/10.46222/AJHTL.19770720-102
  6. Andreu, M. G. N., Font-barnet, A., & Roca, M. E. (2021). Wellness Tourism — New Challenges and Opportunities for Tourism in Salou. Sustainability, 13(8246), 1–13.
  7. Anup, K. C. (2021). Nepal is a tourist destination with tremendous tourism potentials. Journal of Tourism Quarterly, 2294(2), 99–113.
  8. Benjamin, S., Dillette, A., & Alderman, D. H. (2020). “We can’t return to normal”: committing to tourism equity in the post-pandemic age. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 476–483. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1759130
  9. Bharwani, S., & Mathews, D. (2021). Post-pandemic pressures to pivot: tech transformations in luxury hotels. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 13(5), 569–583. https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-05-2021-0072
  10. Bos-Nehles, A., Renkema, M., & Janssen, M. (2017). HRM and innovative work behaviour: a systematic literature review. Personnel Review, 46(7), 1228–1253. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-09-2016-0257
  11. Budisatria, T., Hasibuan, B. H., Ghassani, S., & Nazareth, R. (2021). Peran Pembangunan Infrastruktur Pariwisata dalam Pembentukan Branding Pariwisata Lombok Pasca Pandemi. Jurnal Kepariwisataan: Destinasi, Hospitalitas Dan Perjalanan, 5(1), 58–74. https://journal.stp-bandung.ac.id/index.php/jk/article/view/238
  12. Carlson, C. J., Gomez, A. C. R., Bansal, S., & Ryan, S. J. (2020). Misconceptions about weather and seasonality must not misguide COVID-19 response. Nature Communications, 11(1), 2–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18150-z
  13. CB Insight. (2021). Our Meatless Future: How The $2.7T Global Meat Market Gets Disrupted-Research Briefs. CB Insight Information Services. https://www.cbinsights.com/research/future-of-meat-industrial-farming/
  14. Celentano, D. . (2019). The Dynamics of Disease Transmission. Gordis Epidemology. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/herd-immunity
  15. Chakravarty, U., Chand, G., & Singh, U. N. (2021). Millennial travel vlogs: emergence of a new form of virtual tourism in the post-pandemic era? Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 13(5), 666–676. https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-05-2021-0077
  16. Chan, C. S. (2021). Developing a conceptual model for the post-COVID-19 pandemic changing tourism risk perception. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(18). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189824
  17. Charumilind, S., Craven, M., Lamb, J., Sabow, A., Singhal, S., & Wilson, M. (2021). When will the COVID-19 pandemic end? Experts explain. World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2021/09/mckinsey-experts-offer-their-latest-analysis-on-when-covid-19-will-end/
  18. Cheung, C., Takashima, M., Choi, H. H., Yang, H., & Cheung, C. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological needs of tourists : implications for the travel and tourism industry implications for the travel and tourism industry. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 38(2), 155–166. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2021.1887055
  19. Chowdhury, I., & Chhikara, D. (2020). Recovery strategy for tourism industry post-pandemic. Mukt Shabd Journal, 9(8), 291–296.
  20. Chrastina, J. (2018). Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Studies: Background,Methodology and Applications. NORDSCI Conference Proceedings Book 1 Volume 1, 1, 113–121. https://doi.org/10.32008/nordsci2018/b1/v1/13
  21. Chrysnaputra, R. D., & Pangestoeti, W. (2021). Pariwisata Halal Dan Travel Syariah Pasca Pandemi Covid 19. An-Nisbah: Jurnal Perbankan Syariah, 2(2), 151–172. https://doi.org/10.51339/nisbah.v2i2.316
  22. Chua, B. L., Al-Ansi, A., Lee, M. J., & Han, H. (2020). Tourists’ outbound travel behavior in the aftermath of the COVID-19: role of corporate social responsibility, response effort, and health prevention. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(6), 879–906. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1849236
  23. Collins Dictionary. (2021). Post-Pandemic. In Collins Dictionary. Collins Dictionary. https://www.collinsdictionary.com/submission/23375/post-pandemic
  24. Cooper, J. A., & Alderman, D. H. (2020). Cancelling March Madness exposes opportunities for a more sustainable sports tourism economy. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 525–535. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1759135
  25. Corbisiero, F., & Monaco, S. (2021). Post-pandemic tourism resilience: changes in Italians’ travel behavior and the possible responses of tourist cities. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 13(3), 401–417. https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-01-2021-0011
  26. D’Souza, & Dowdy. (2021). What is Herd Immunity and How Can We Achieve It With COVID-19? COVID-19. School of Public Health Expert Insights. https://www.jhsph.edu/covid-19/articles/achieving-herd-immunity-with-covid19.html.
  27. Dash, S. B., & Sharma, P. (2021). Reviving Indian Tourism amid the Covid-19 pandemic: Challenges and workable solutions. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 22(August), 100648. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2021.100648
  28. Dias, Á., Aldana, I., Pereira, L., Lopes da Costa, R., & António, N. (2021). A measure of tourist responsibility. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(6), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063351
  29. Esquivias, M. A., Sugiharti, L., Rohmawati, H., Setyorani, B., & Anindito, A. (2020). Tourism demand in indonesia: Implications in a post-pandemic period. Geojournal of Tourism and Geosites, 37(3), 951–958. https://doi.org/10.30892/gtg.37329-731
  30. Fetais, G. H., & Gharib, R. (2020). Toward a diversified economy in post-pandemic environment: regeneration of Qatari villages. Open House International, 45(3), 269–282. https://doi.org/10.1108/OHI-05-2020-0042
  31. Figueroa, E. B., & Rotarou, E. S. (2021). Island tourism-based sustainable development at a crossroads: Facing the challenges of the covid-19 pandemic. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(18), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810081
  32. Finfgeld-Connett, D. (2018). A guide to qualitative meta-synthesis. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
  33. Finfgeld, D. L. (2003). Metasynthesis: The state of the art - So far. Qualitative Health Research, 13(7), 893–904. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732303253462
  34. Gallo, P., Matušíková, D., Šenková, A., Šambronská, K., & Molčák, T. (2021). Crisis and recovery of business entities in tourism in the post pandemic period in Slovakia. Geojournal of Tourism and Geosites, 38(4), 1033–1041. https://doi.org/10.30892/GTG.38407-741
  35. Galloway, S. (2020). Post Corona: From Crisis to Opportunity. Random House.
  36. Hakim, L. (2020). COVID-19, tourism, and small islands in Indonesia: Protecting fragile communities in the global Coronavirus pandemic. Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, 9(1), 130–141. https://doi.org/10.21463/jmic.2020.09.1.08
  37. Han, H., Al-Ansi, A., Chua, B. L., Tariq, B., Radic, A., & Park, S. H. (2020). The post-coronavirus world in the international tourism industry: Application of the theory of planned behavior to safer destination choices in the case of us outbound tourism. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186485
  38. Hertwig, F., & Lusby, C. (2021). Benefits and opportunities of international volunteer tourism–sustainable travel post pandemic. World Leisure Journal, 63(1), 14–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/16078055.2021.1887996
  39. Hsieh, H. C., Nguyen, X. H., Wang, T. C., & Lee, J. Y. (2020). Prediction of knowledge management for success of franchise hospitality in a post-pandemic economy. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(20), 1–27. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208755
  40. Hussain, A., & Fusté-Forné, F. (2021). Post-Pandemic Recovery: A Case of Domestic Tourism in Akaroa (South Island, New Zealand). World, 2(1), 127–138. https://doi.org/10.3390/world2010009
  41. Ioannides, D., & Gyimóthy, S. (2020). The COVID-19 crisis as an opportunity for escaping the unsustainable global tourism path. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 624–632. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1763445
  42. Joshi, V. A., & Gupta, I. (2021). Assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospitality and tourism education in India and preparing for the new normal. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 13(5), 622–635. https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-05-2021-0068
  43. Jouault, S., Rivera-Núñez, T., de Fuentes, A. G., Koh, M. X., & Giustinianovic, A. M. (2021). Responses, resistance, and opportunities for community-based tourism in the Yucatan peninsula in the face of Covid-19 and recurring crises. Investigaciones Geograficas, 104. https://doi.org/10.14350/RIG.60240
  44. Kemensos. (2021). What is New Normal? In Kemensos.go.id. Ministry of Social Affairs Republic of Indonesia. https://kemensos.go.id/index.php/en/what-is-new-normal
  45. Kompas. (2020, April 2). Luhut: Dari Hasil Modelling, Virus Corona Tak Kuat Hidup di Cuaca Indonesia. Kompas. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2020/04/02/15275601/luhut-dari-hasil-modelling-virus-corona-tak-kuat-hidup-di-cuaca-indonesia
  46. Kowalczyk-Anioł, J., Grochowicz, M., & Pawlusiński, R. (2021). How a tourism city responds to covid-19: A cee perspective (kraków case study). Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(14). https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147914
  47. Kusumawati, F. R., Ferdous, E., & Bayramov, B. (2021). The impact of customer behaviour on travel intention abroad after a pandemic. International Journal of Tourism Policy, 11(2), 142–160. https://doi.org/10.1504/ijtp.2021.117372
  48. Leach, M., MacGregor, H., Scoones, I., & Wilkinson, A. (2021). Post-pandemic transformations: How and why COVID-19 requires us to rethink development. World Development, 138(105233), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105233
  49. Lenzen, M., Li, M., Malik, A., Pomponi, F., Sun, Y. Y., Wiedmann, T., Faturay, F., Fry, J., Gallego, B., Geschke, A., Gómez-Paredes, J., Kanemoto, K., Kenway, S., Nansai, K., Prokopenko, M., Wakiyama, T., Wang, Y., & Yousefzadeh, M. (2020). Global socio-economic losses and environmental gains from the coronavirus pandemic. PLoS ONE, 15(7 July), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0235654
  50. Li, J., Hong, T., Nguyen, H., & Coca-stefaniak, J. A. (2021). Understanding post-pandemic travel behaviours – China ’ s Golden Week. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 49(September), 84–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2021.09.003
  51. Liu, Y., Shi, H., Li, Y., & Amin, A. (2021). Factors influencing Chinese residents’ post-pandemic outbound travel intentions: an extended theory of planned behavior model based on the perception of COVID-19. In Tourism Review (Vol. 76, Issue 4, pp. 871–891). https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-09-2020-0458
  52. Madeira, A., Palrão, T., & Mendes, A. S. (2021). The impact of pandemic crisis on the restaurant business. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010040
  53. Matiza, T., & Kruger, M. (2021). Ceding to their fears : a taxonomic analysis of the heterogeneity in COVID-19 associated perceived risk and intended travel behaviour. Tourism Recreation Research ISSN:, 46(2), 158–174. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2021.1889793
  54. Mejia, C., Ciarlante, K., & Chheda, K. (2021). A wearable technology solution and research agenda for housekeeper safety and health. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 33(10), 3223–3255. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-01-2021-0102
  55. Mestanza-Ramón, C., & Jiménez-Caballero, J. L. (2021). Nature tourism on the colombian—ecuadorian Amazonian border: History, current situation, and challenges. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(8), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084432
  56. Milanes, C. B., Pérez Montero, O., Cabrera, J. A., & Cuker, B. (2021). Recommendations for coastal planning and beach management in Caribbean insular states during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Ocean and Coastal Management, 208(April). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2021.105575
  57. Milwood, P. A., & Crick, A. P. (2021). Culinary tourism and post-pandemic travel: Ecosystem responses to an external shock. Journal of Tourism, Heritage and Services Marketing, 7(1), 23–32. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4516562
  58. Mínguez, C., Martínez-Hernández, C., & Yubero, C. (2021). Higher education and the sustainable tourism pedagogy: Are tourism students ready to lead change in the post pandemic era? Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, 29(November 2020), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2021.100329
  59. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. BMJ (Online), 339(7716), 332–336. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2535
  60. Neuman, M., Chelleri, L., & Schuetze, T. (2021). Post-pandemic urbanism: Criteria for a new normal. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(19), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910600
  61. Nightingale, A. (2009). A guide to systematic literature reviews. Surgery, 27(9), 381–384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mpsur.2009.07.005
  62. Nofre, J., Garcia-Ruiz, M., Fuarros, I. S., & Pires, C. V. (2020). Hopes and Uncertainties in the Nightlife Industry of Post-Covid-19 Europe. Finisterra, 55(115), 249–254. https://doi.org/10.18055/Finis20160
  63. Nurhalimah, Darmawan, R. N., & Kanom. (2020). Analisis Dampak Perkembangan Pariwisata Pulau Santen Banyuwangi Pasca Pandemi Covid-19. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Terapan Riset Inovatif (SENTRINOV), 6(2), 361–369.
  64. Okoli, C. (2015). A guide to conducting a standalone systematic literature review. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 37(1), 879–910. https://doi.org/10.17705/1cais.03743
  65. Orîndaru, A., Popescu, M. F., Alexoaei, A. P., Căescu, Ștefan C., Florescu, M. S., & Orzan, A. O. (2021). Tourism in a post-covid-19 era: Sustainable strategies for industry’s recovery. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(12), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126781
  66. Ormaza-Gonzaìlez, F. I., Castro-Rodas, D., & Statham, P. J. (2021). COVID-19 Impacts on Beaches and Coastal Water Pollution at Selected Sites in Ecuador, and Management Proposals Post-pandemic. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8(July), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.669374
  67. Parris, D. L., & Peachey, J. W. (2013). A Systematic Literature Review of Servant Leadership Theory in Organizational Contexts. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(3), 377–393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1322-6
  68. Pasquinelli, C., Trunfio, M., Bellini, N., & Rossi, S. (2021). Sustainability in overtouristified cities? A social media insight into italian branding responses to covid-19 crisis. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(4), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041848
  69. Paterson, B. L., Dubouloz, C.-J., Chevrier, J., Ashe, B., King, J., & Moldoveanu, M. (2009). Conducting Qualitative Metasynthesis Research: Insights from a Metasynthesis Project. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8(3), 22–33. https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690900800304
  70. Petino, G., Reina, G., & Privitera, D. (2021). Cycling tourism and revitalization in the sicilian hinterland: A case study in the taormina–etna district. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(18). https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810022
  71. Poruțiu, A., Tirpe, O. P., Oroian, C., Mihai, V. C., Chiciudean, G. O., Chiciudean, D. I., & Poruțiu, C. (2021). Analysis on tourists’ preferences for rural tourism destinations in Romania. Societies, 11(3), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc11030092
  72. Pratiwi, D. P. E., Sulatra, I. K., & Kartiawan, I. K. (2021). Potret Budaya Bali Pada Iklan Pariwisata Bali Pasca Pandemi: Kajian Semiotik. In. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Linguistik Dan Sastra (SEMNALISA), 1((1)), 37–46. http://e-journal.unmas.ac.id/index.php/semnalisa/article/view/2333.
  73. Putri, E. Y., Hayyin, F., & Saefullah, S. (2020). Penerapan metode Balanced scorecard dalam industri pariwisata pasca Pandemi Covid-19: Literature Review. Operations Excellence: Journal of Applied Industrial Engineering, 12(2), 240. https://doi.org/10.22441/oe.2020.v12.i2.009
  74. Qiao, G., Zhao, X. L., Xin, L., & Kim, S. (2021). Concerns or desires post-pandemic: An extended mgb model for understanding South Korean residents’ perceptions and intentions to travel to China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(5), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052542
  75. Qiu, R. T. R., Park, J., Li, S. N., & Song, H. (2020). Social costs of tourism during the COVID-19 pandemic. Annals of Tourism Research, 84(June), 102994. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.102994
  76. Radojević, B., Lazić, L., & Cimbaljević, M. (2020). Rescaling smart destinations: The growing importance of smart geospatial services during and after COVID-19 pandemic. Geographica Pannonica, 24(3), 221–228. https://doi.org/10.5937/gp24-28009
  77. Reid, D., & Goldberg, D. (2012). Epidemiology and control of community infections. In Medical Microbiology: Eighteenth Edition (Eighteenth). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-4089-4.00082-2
  78. Renaud, L. (2020). Reconsidering global mobility–distancing from mass cruise tourism in the aftermath of COVID-19. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 679–689. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1762116
  79. Richter, I., Avillanosa, A., Cheung, V., Goh, H. C., Johari, S., Kay, S., Maharja, C., Nguyễn, T. H. à., Pahl, S., Sugardjito, J., Sumeldan, J., van Nguyen, Q., Vu, H. T., Wan Mohamad Ariffin, W. N. S., & Austen, M. C. (2021). Looking Through the COVID-19 Window of Opportunity: Future Scenarios Arising From the COVID-19 Pandemic Across Five Case Study Sites. Frontiers in Psychology, 12(July), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.635686
  80. Ritz, A., Brewer, G. A., & Neumann, O. (2016). Public Service Motivation: A Systematic Literature Review and Outlook. Public Administration Review, 76(3), 414–426. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.12505
  81. Samah, K. A. F. A., Nasaruddin, N. I. S., Afandi, M. A. R., Rahim, N. Z. A., Rum, S. F. M., & Saman, F. I. (2021). Non-immersive virtual reality for malay and islamic world museum melaka: Effects from COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration, 8(74), 91–101. https://doi.org/10.19101/IJATEE.2020.S1762118
  82. Sharma, S., & Kaushik, T. (2021). Aesthetically clean to clinically clean – A study on new housekeeping practices in Delhi hotels beyond COVID-19 pandemic. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 13(5), 646–659. https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-05-2021-0069
  83. Sin, H. L., Mostafanezhad, M., & Cheer, J. M. (2021). Tourism geographies in the ‘Asian Century.’ Tourism Geographies, 23(4), 649–658. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1826571
  84. Sparrow, R., Dartanto, T., & Hartwig, R. (2020). Indonesia Under the New Normal: Challenges and the Way Ahead. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 56(3), 269–299. https://doi.org/10.1080/00074918.2020.1854079
  85. Stankov, U., Filimonau, V., & Vujičić, M. D. (2020). A mindful shift: an opportunity for mindfulness-driven tourism in a post-pandemic world. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 703–712. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1768432
  86. Suciati, D. A. P., & Suadnya, I. M. (2020). Oleh Desak Ayu Putu Suciati; I Made Suadnya. Maha Widya Duta: Jurnal Penerangan Agama, Pariwisata Budaya, Dan Ilmu Komunikasi, 5(1), 88–94.
  87. Suparta, I. W. (2021). Recovery Pariwisata Bali Pasca Pandemi Covid-19 ( Studi kasus : Penegakan Protokol Kesehatan Di Kabupaten Buleleng ). Jurnal Akademisi Dan Praktisi Pariwisata, 1(1), 59–75.
  88. Suprapto, N., Zamroni, A., Abidah, A., & Wulandari, D. (2021). The Pros and Cons of the “New Normal” Concept during COVID-19 Outbreak. EDUTEC : Journal of Education And Technology, 4(3), 412–427. https://doi.org/10.29062/edu.v4i3.179
  89. Sutrisno, E. (2020). Strategi Pemulihan Ekonomi Pasca Pandemi Melalui Sektor UMKM Dan Pariwisata. Jurnal Kajian Lembaga Ketahanan Nasional Republik Indonesia, 09(November), 87–96.
  90. Szpakowska-Loranc, E. (2021). Multi-attribute analysis of contemporary cultural buildings in the historic urban fabric as sustainable spaces—Krakow case study. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116126
  91. Szuster, B. W., & Peng, M. (2021). Longitudinal perspectives on crowding and management at a beach park in Hawai’i. Ocean and Coastal Management, 211(June), 105763. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2021.105763
  92. Thorne, S., Jensen, L., Kearney, M. H., Noblit, G., & Sandelowski, M. (2004). Qualitative metasynthesis: Reflections on methodological orientation and ideological agenda. Qualitative Health Research, 14(10), 1342–1365. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732304269888
  93. Tiwari, S., & Sanjeev, G. M. (2021). Conclusion: emerging issues for Indian hospitality and tourism businesses: How are managers responding to the COVID-19 pandemic? Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 13(5), 677–682. https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-06-2021-0085
  94. Tuksar, S., & Dujmović, M. (2009). “The Accidental Tourist “In the Context of Zoomed-in Images in the Multimodal Interpersonal Video Communication. Palimpsest: International Journal for Linguistic, Literary and Cultural Research, VI(11), 211–226. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.46763/PALIM21116
  95. United Nation World Tourism Organization. (2020). UNWTO Briefing Note – Tourism and COVID-19–How Are Countries Supporting Tourism Recovery? (Issue 2).
  96. United Nation World Tourism Organization. (2021). International Tourism and covid-19. https://www.unwto.org/international-tourism-and-covid-19
  97. Welsch, F. (2021). The COVID-19 pandemic: A multidimensional crisis. Gaceta Medica de Caracas, 128(Supl 2), S137–S148. https://doi.org/10.47307/GMC.2020.128.S2.2
  98. Wen, J., Hou, H., Kozak, M., Meng, F., Yu, C. E., & Wang, W. (2021). The missing link between medical science knowledge and public awareness: implications for tourism and hospitality recovery after COVID-19. European Journal of Management and Business Economics, 30(2), 230–242. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJMBE-11-2020-0329
  99. Williams, D. R., & Cooper, L. A. (2020). COVID-19 and Health Equity - A New Kind of “herd Immunity.” JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, 323(24), 2478–2480. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.8051
  100. World Health Organisation. (2004). WHO SARS Risk Assessment and Preparedness Framework (Issue October). http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/CDS_CSR_ARO_2004_2.pdf
  101. World Health Organization. (2010). Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response: A WHO Guidance Document. A WHO guidance document. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44123
  102. World Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Herd immunity, lockdowns and COVID-19. https://www.who.int/news-room/questions-and-answers/item/herd-immunity-lockdowns-and-covid-19
  103. World Health Organization. (2021, November 30). Weekly epidemiological update on COVID-19 - 30 November 2021. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/weekly-epidemiological-update-on-covid-19---30-november-2021
  104. Xiao, Y., & Watson, M. (2019). Guidance on Conducting a Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 39(1), 93–112. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456X17723971
  105. Zakaria, F. (2020). Ten Lessons for a Post-Pandemic World. W.W. Norton Companies.
  106. Zhang, X., & Tang, J. (2021). A study of emotional solidarity in the homestay industry between hosts and tourists in the post-pandemic era. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(13). https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137458


  • There are currently no refbacks.