Solusi Filsafat Jiwa Sadra Pada Problem Paradoks dan Implikasi Onto-Epistemik Transhumanisme Nick Bostrom


  • Fadhlu Rahman STAI Sadra



Paradoxes, Onto-Epistemic, Liberal Transhumanism, Nick Bostrom, Mulla Sadra, Fundamentality of Existence


This study aims to examine and provide a solution to Nick Bostrom's onto-epistemic theoretical consistency problem of transhumanism which is considered to have a conceptual paradox and its implications for the basic concepts of transhumanism which consists of three pillars, namely: superintelligence, superlongevity, and super wellbeing. The testing and solutions that will be given are carried out through one of the major themes of the discourse on the relation of soul and body and the process of perfection in the tradition of Islamic philosophy. One form of mature philosophical discourse is in the Sadra’s philosophy of Soul. Therefore, the writer wants to describe the ontological and epistemological foundations of Bostrom's transhumanism as well as the Sadra’s philosophy of soul, and look at the paradoxes and onto-epistemic implications of the three pillars of transhumanism based on Sadra's view by descriptive and comparative analysis methods. In previous studies on the issue of transhumanism and the philosophy of the soul, Sadra still only focused on the description of each of these two issues. In addition, the study of this issue (transhumanism) focuses on the problem of its metaphysical basis by a western philosophical approach, so, this study wants to analyze it from the perspective of Islamic philosophy which is considered authoritative as the basis for studying metaphysical issues in the onto-epistemic context of transhumanism. I find that his onto-epistemic assumptions include; first, its dualism of epiphenomenalism as the basis of ontology necessitates the impossibility of matter having direct access to immaterial states of the self, while its limitations cannot create the perfection that Bostrom intended; and the second, his scientism as the basis of his epistemology require perfection that is not comprehensive and holistic, from the results of the analysis, I assesses that Bostrom's metaphysical assumptions are problematic both in terms of coherence and correspondence on the pillars of his transhumanism, and Sadra’s philosophical thought provides a solution in the form of the onto-epistemic basis for his soul philosophy and the process of perfecting in the problem of the fragility of Bostrom's Transhumanism ideas which can then provide the ideal form of the perfect human that Bostrom assumes.

Abstract viewed: 365 times | PDF downloaded = 161 times


Al-Walid, Kholid. Filsafat Eskatologi Mulla Sadra. Jakarta: Sadrapress, 2012.

Andersen, Ross. “When We Peer Into The Fog of The Deep Future What Do We See – Human Extinction or A Future Among The Stars?” AEON, 2013.

Bishop, Jeffrey P. “Transhumanism, Metaphysics, and The Posthuman God.” Medicine and Philosoph, n.d., 702.

———. “Transhumanism, Metaphysics, and The Posthuman God.” Dalam Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35, no. 4 (2010): 701.

Bostrom, Julian Savulescu dan Nick. Human Enhancement. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Bostrom, Nick. “A History Of Transhumanist Though.” Journal of Evolution and Technology 14, no. 1 (2005): 1.

———. “BIO.”, 2005.

———. Dignity and Enhancement. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

———. Superintelligence: Path, Danger, Strategies. Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress, 2014.

———. The Transhumanist FAQ: A General Introduction. London: World Transhumanist Association, 2003.

———. Transhumanist Values. Oxford: Oxford Philosophy Documentation Center, 2005.

———. Why I Want to Be a Posthuman When I Grow Up. Oxford: Medical Enhancement and Posthumanity, 2008.

Clovic, Nick Bostrom dan Milar M Cirlovic, ed. Global Catastrophic. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Dancy, Jonathan. An Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: Blackwell, 1985.

Dhiauddin. “Aliran Filsafat Islam (Al-H}ikmah Al-Muta’a>liyah) Mulla Sadra.” Nizham 1, no. 1 (2013): 45.

Faiz. “Eksistensialisme Mulla Sadra.” Teosofi 3, no. 2 (2013): 436–59.

Ferrando, Francesca. “Posthumanism, Transhumanism, Antihumanism, Metahumanism, and New Materialism.” An International Journal in Philosophy, Religion, Politics and the Art 8, no. 2 (2013).

Gama, Cipta Bakti. “Studi Kritis Terhadap Teori Identitas Pikiran-Otak Mario Bunge: Perspektif Neo-Sadrian.” Khanz Philosophia 4, no. 2 (n.d.): 139.

Heil, Jhon. Philosophy of Mind: A Contemporary Introduction. London: Routledge, 1998.

Hopkins, Patrick D. “A Moral Vision for Transhumanism.” Journal of Evolution and Technology 19, no. 1 (2008): 1,5.

Kalin, Ibrahim. Knowledge in Later Islamic Philosophy: Mulla Sadra on Existence, Intellect, and Intuition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Kamal, Muhammad. Mulla Sadra’s Trancendent Philosophy. Ashgate, 2006.

Khatchadourian, Raffi. “The Doomsday Invention: Will Artificial Intelligence Bring Us Utopia or Destruction?”, 2015.

Lee, Newton, ed. The Transhumanism Handbook. California: Springer, 2019.

Mahdi, Hadi Ibn. Sabzavari: The Metaphysics of Sabzawari. Teheran: University Press, 1983.

Manzocco, Roberto. Transhumanism Engineering The Human Condition. Chiscester: Springer, 2019.

Mitchell, Stephen. Gilgamesh: A New English Version. New York: Free Press, 2004.

Morris, James Winston. He Wisdom of The Throne: An Introduction to Philosophy of Mulla Sadra. New Jersey: Princenton University Press, 1981.

Rifa’i, Abd Al-Jabbar. “Maba>di> Al-Falsafah Al-Islamiyyah.” Beirut: Dar al-Hadi, 2001.

Sadr al-Muta’alihin Shirazi. Al-H}ikmah Al-Muta’a>liyah Fi> Al-Asfar Al-’Aqliyyah Al-Arba’ah. Beirut: Dar Ihya’ al-Turath al-’Arabi, 1981.

Sanberg, Nick Bostrom dan Sanders. Cognitive Enhancement: Method, Ethics Regularity and Challenges. Oxford: Springer, 2009.

Sharon, Tamar. Human Nature in Age of Biotechnology. New York: Springer, 2014.

Sorgner, Robert Ranisch dan Stefan Lorenz, ed. Beyond Humanism: Transh and Posthumanism (Jenseits Des Humanismus: Trans-Und Post-Humanismus). 1st ed. Frankfrut: Peterlang, 2014.

———. Post- and Transhumanism. Frankrut: Peterlang Edition, 2014.

Taufik, Leo Muhammad. “Teori Evolusi Darwin: Dulu, Kini Dan Nanti.” Jurnal Filsafat Indonesia 2, no. 3 (2019): 3–4.

Thabataba’i, Muhammad Husain. Bidāyah Al-Hikmah. Qum: Dar al-FIkr, 1387.

Thabathaba, Sayyid Husain. Nihāyah Al-Hikmah. Beirut: Muassasah al-Islamiyyah, 1428.

Vikoulov, Alex. “Three Pillar of Transhumanism: Superlongevity, Superintelligence, Super Wellbeing,” n.d. http// .