Konsep Ittiḥād dalam Fabel Mantiq at-Ṭair: Pemikiran Tasawuf Falsafi Farīduddīn ‘Aṭār (1145-1221 M)

Authors

  • Muhammad Ihza Fazrian UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta
  • A.Anjasyah UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta
  • Sulistiyo UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14421/ref.v23i2.5108

Abstract

This article focuses on Farīduddīn ‘Aṭār 's philosophy of Sufism, namely the concept of ittihad. His thoughts on ittihad can be explored through his work in the form of a fable entitled Mantiq at-Ṭair (The Deliberation of Birds). The fable tells the story of birds that gather and deliberate to find their King named Simurgh. Everything contained in the work is a reflection of ‘Aṭār  's own Sufistic experience in seeking God which is retold through fables. In general, the concept of ittihad was initiated by Abu Yazid al-Bustami, ‘Aṭār   developed the concept through his work. Regarding the process of ittihad, in his work ‘Aṭār   tells the story of the seven valleys that birds must pass through in search of Simurgh; ṭalab (search), ‘isyq (love), ma'rifat (knowledge), istighnā (the absurdity of things around), tawhīd (unity), hīraṭ (confusion), and fana. The valleys are described as challenges that must be overcome by a Sufi who wants to find his God. The journey ends with the transience of the birds (Sufis) towards other than the Simurgh (God) to cause devotion to Him. This research uses descriptive-analytic method with data obtained from relevant literature sources to build structured and systematic findings. The findings in this article show that the concept of ittihad developed by ‘Aṭār   emphasizes the aspects of ‘isyq and fana to find God.

Abstract viewed: 263 times | pdf downloaded = 98 times

References

‘Abdul Wahāb ’Azzām. At-Taṣawuf Wa Farīduddīn ’Aṭar. Inggris Raya: Hindāwī, 2012.

Abū A’lā al-‘Afifī. At-Taṣawwuf Aṡ-Ṡaurah Ar-Ruḥiyyah Fī al-Islām. Inggris Raya: Hindawi, 2020.

Ahmad Syatori. ‘Tasawuf Falsafi | PUTIH: Jurnal Pengetahuan Tentang Ilmu Dan Hikmah’ 7, no. 1 (26 March 2022). http://journal.mahadalyalfithrah.ac.id/index.php/PUTIH/article/view/84.

Aigle, Denise. ‘˓Aṭṭār’s “Taḏkirat al-Awliyā˒” and Jāmī’s “Nafaḥāt al-Uns”: Two Visions of Sainthood’. Oriente Moderno 96, no. 2 (2016): 271–315.

Boyle, John Andrew. ‘The Religious “Mathnavīs” of Farīd al-Dīn Aṭṭār’. Iran 17 (1979): 9. https://doi.org/10.2307/4299670.

Buehler, Arthur F. Recognizing Sufism: Contemplation in the Islamic Tradition. London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd, 2016.

Dar, Basharat Ahmad. ‘The Concept of Oneness with God A Comparative Study of Farid Ud Din Attar and Kabir Is Selected Works’. University, 17 February 2023. http://shodhgangotri.inflibnet.ac.in:8443/jspui/handle/20.500.14146/11152.

Dhiyaul Ibad Fillah, Strata. ‘Tujuh Lembah Cinta Fariduddin Attar: Sebuah Proses Perjalanan Spiritual Manusia Dalam Kitab Mantiq Al-Tayr (Analisis Hermeunetika Hans-Georg Gadamer)’, 2021.

Ernst, Carl W. Sufism: An Introduction to the Mystical Tradition of Islam. Boston ; London: Shambhala, 2011.

Farīduddīn al-’Aṭār. Mantiq At-Tāir. Qahirah, Mesir: Dār Āfāq, 2014.

Faza, Abrar M. Dawud. ‘Tasawuf Falsafi’. Al-Hikmah: Jurnal Theosofi Dan Peradaban Islam 1, no. 1 (6 February 2019). https://doi.org/10.51900/alhikmah.v1i1.4050.

Hanifiyah, Fitriyatul. ‘Konsep Tasawuf Sunni: Mengurai Tasawuf Akhlaqi, Al-Maqamat Dan Ahwal, Al-Ma’rifah Dan Mahabbah Perspektif Tokoh Sufi Sunni’. AT-TURAS: Jurnal Studi Keislaman 6, no. 2 (28 December 2019): 214–31. https://doi.org/10.33650/at-turas.v6i2.721.

Harun Nasution. Filsafat Dan Mistisime Dalam Islam. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang, 2010.

Helminski, Camille Adams. Women of Sufism: A Hidden Treasure. Shambhala Publications, 2003.

Institut Agama Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah, ed. Ensiklopedi Islam Indonesia. Jakarta: Djambatan, 1992.

Kahfi, Rafli, Siti Nur Aisyah, Hijriyah Hijriyah, and Dwi Rizki Nabila Nasution. ‘Klasifikasi Tasawuf: Amali, Falsafi, Akhlaki’. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Konseling (JPDK) 5, no. 1 (17 January 2023): 4073–79. https://doi.org/10.31004/jpdk.v5i1.11658.

Kholid Al Walid. Tasawuf Filosofis Menyelami Samudera Ilmu Tasawuf Filosofis. Jakarta Selatan: Sadra Press, 2020.

Lapidus, Ira M. A History of Islamic Societies. Third edition. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Michon, Jean-Louis, and Roger Gaetani, eds. Sufism: Love & Wisdom. The Perennial Philosophy Series. Bloomington, Ind: World Wisdom, 2006.

Ni’am, Syamsun. ‘Maqāmāt Dalam Manthiq Al-Thayr Al-Attār’. Kanz Philosophia: A Journal for Islamic Philosophy and Mysticism 5, no. 1 (2015): 59–72.

Shāfi’ī, Hasan Mahmud, and Abu al-Yazd Abū Zayd ’Ajamī. Fi Al-Tasawwuf al-Islam. Qahirah: Dar as-Salam, 2007.

Siroj, Said Aqil. Allah Dan Alam Semesta: Perspektif Tasawuf Falsafi. Jakarta Selatan: Yayasan Said Aqil Siroj, 2021.

Sulaeman, Mubaidi. ‘Pemikiran Tasawuf Falsafi Awal: Rabi’ah Al-‘Adawiyyah, Al-Bustamī, Dan Al-Hallaj’. Refleksi Jurnal Filsafat Dan Pemikiran Islam 20, no. 1 (6 September 2020): 1–24. https://doi.org/10.14421/ref.v20i1.2235.

Supriyanto, Supriyanto. ‘The Dimension of Religious Moderation in The Novel Mantiq At Tayr Fariduddin Attar’. MUHARRIK: Jurnal Dakwah Dan Sosial 4, no. 02 (2 August 2021): 127–42. https://doi.org/10.37680/muharrik.v4i02.913.

Suraiya, Suraiya. ‘Kritik Sastra Feminis Dalam Karya Sastra Kahlil Gibran’. Jurnal Adabiya 18, no. 2 (13 March 2017): 48. https://doi.org/10.22373/adabiya.v18i35.1204.

The Heritage of Sufism. 2: The Legacy of Medieval Persian Sufism (1150 - 1500). Oxford: Oneworld, 1999.

Downloads

Published

2024-01-27