RUMOURS AND INFODEMICS: JOURNALIST'S SOCIAL MEDIA VERIFICATION PRACTICES DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

Chelin Indra Sushmita, Pawito Pawito, Andre Noevi Rahmanto

Abstract


Abstract.  The spread of rumors and infodemics on the Internet and social media during the Covid-19 pandemic which is unstoppable and usually believed to be the truth is more dangerous than the transmission of the Covid-19 outbreak because it has the potential to threaten safety, cause racism, and hatred of the community. It is the duty of  journalists to doing fact-checking and corrects any rumors or infodemics. Fact-checking is one of the most important elements of professional journalism. Technological advances have made infodemics spread rapidly which has become a new challenge for professional journalists as information agents and spearheads of accurate reporting. This became the basis for mass media companies such as Kompas.com and Solopos.com to form journalism team checks to verify the facts and infodemics rumors that circulated widely on the Internet and social media during the Covid-19 pandemic. Fact-checking journalism is a new trend in digital journalism studies. This paper reviews the work practices of fact-checking journalists in verifying infodemics from social media content as the spearhead of accurate reporting as well as a manifestation of hypermedia organizations. A series of qualitative interviews were conducted with journalists at Solopos.com and Kompas.com who were in charge of the fact-check section. The results showed that journalists carried out a series of processes both manually and utilizing digital technology in verifying content and checking several facts to ensure rumors and infodemics on social media about Covid-19 that were spread on social media be compiled into news using journalistic principles. The work process of fact-checking journalists is often done collaboratively to form hypermedia organizations.

Keywords: rumors, infodemics, online journalism, fact-check, covid-19, journalism, journalists

 

Abstrak. Persebaran rumor dan infodemik di Internet dan media sosial selama pandemi Covid-19 yang tidak terbendung dan sering kali diyakini sebagai kebenaran oleh masyarakat dinilai jauh lebih berbahaya daripada penularan wabah Covid-19, karena berpotensi mengancam keselamatan, menimbulkan rasisme, serta kebencian terhadap suatu golongan. Sudah menjadi tugas jurnalis dan untuk mengecek fakta dan meluruskan setiap rumor serta infodemik yang beredar di masyarakat. Pengecekan fakta adalah salah satu elemen penting dalam jurnalisme profesional. Kemajuan teknologi membuat infodemik tersebar dengan cepat yang kemudian menjadi tantangan baru bagi jurnalis profesional sebagai agen informasi dan ujung tombak pemberitaan yang akurat. Hal ini menjadi landasan bagi perusahaan media massa berskala nasional seperti Kompas.com maupun lokal, yaitu Solopos.com membentuk tim jurnalisme cek fakta untuk memverifikasi rumor serta infodemik yang beredar luas di internet dan media sosial. Jurnalisme cek fakta merupakan tren baru dalam perkembangan jurnalisme digital. Tulisan ini mengulas praktik kerja jurnalis pemeriksa fakta dalam memverifikasi infodemik dari konten media sosial sebagai ujung tombak pemberitaan yang akurat sekaligus sebagai manifestasi organisasi organisasi hipermedia. Serangkaian wawancara kualitatif dilakukan kepada jurnalis di Solopos.com dan Kompas.com yang bertugas sebagai jurnalis pemeriksa fakta. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan para jurnalis melakukan serangkaian proses verifikasi konten dan pengecekan fakta baik secara manual maupun memanfaatkan teknologi digital untuk mengkonfirmasi rumor serta infodemik tentang Covid-19 yang tersebar di media sosial untuk disusun dalam berita sesuai kaidah jurnalistik. Proses kerja jurnalis pemeriksa fakta ini sering kali dilakukan secara kolaboratif yang membentuk organisasi hipermedia.

Kata kunci: rumor, infodemik, jurnalisme online, cek fakta, covid-19, jurnalisme, jurnalis


Keywords


rumors, infodemics, online journalism, fact-check, covid-19, journalism, journalists

Full Text:

PDF

References


Al-Rawi, A. (2019). Viral News on Social Media. Digital Journalism. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2017.1387062

Andany, W. (2020, July 4). Mentan Klaim Kalung Kayu Putih Ampuh Lawan Virus Corona. Cnnindonesia.Com. https://www.cnnindonesia.com/ekonomi/20200703182926-92-520692/mentan-klaim-kalung-kayu-putih-ampuh-lawan-virus-corona

Backholm, K., Ausserhofer, J., Frey, E., Larsen, A. G., Hornmoen, H., Högväg, J., & Reimerth, G. (2017). Crises, Rumours and Reposts: Journalists’ Social Media Content Gathering and Verification Practices in Breaking News Situations. Media and Communication, 5(2), 67–76. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v5i2.878

Barua, Z., Barua, S., Aktar, S., Kabir, N., & Li, M. (2020). Effects of misinformation on COVID-19 individual responses and recommendations for resilience of disastrous consequences of misinformation. Progress in Disaster Science, 8, 100119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pdisas.2020.100119

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2012). Thematic analysis. In APA handbook of research methods in psychology, Vol 2: Research designs: Quantitative, qualitative, neuropsychological, and biological. https://doi.org/10.1037/13620-004

Broersma, M., & Graham, T. (2013). Twitter as a News Source. How Dutch and British Newspapers Used Tweets in Their News Coverage. Journalism Practice, 4, 446–464. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2013.802481

Casero-Ripollés, A. (2020). Impact of covid-19 on the media system. Communicative and democratic consequences of news consumption during the outbreak. Profesional de La Informacion, 29(2), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.mar.23

Chaniscara, C. (2020). Warga Solo Klaim Temukan Jamu Penyembuh Covid-19, Sembuhkan 7 Pasien. Solopos.Com. https://www.solopos.com/warga-solo-klaim-temukan-jamu-penyembuh-covid-19-sembuhkan-7-pasien-1056265

Cinelli, M., Quattrociocchi, W., Galeazzi, A., Valensise, C. M., Brugnoli, E., Schmidt, A. L., Zola, P., Zollo, F., & Scala, A. (2020). The COVID-19 social media infodemic. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73510-5

Creswell, J. W. (2016). Research Design (Pendekatan Metode Kualitatif, Kuantitatif, dan Campuran). In Terjemahan Bahasa Indonesia. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.20234

Department of Global Communications. (2020). UN tackles ‘infodemic’ of misinformation and cybercrime in COVID-19 crisis. Un.Org. https://www.un.org/en/un-coronavirus-communications-team/un-tackling-‘infodemic’-misinformation-and-cybercrime-covid-19

Peraturan Dewan Pers, Pub. L. No. 5 (2008).

Dewan Pers. (2020). Siaran Pers Media Diimbau Perhatikan Kode Etik Jurnalistik. https://dewanpers.or.id/publikasi/siaranpers_detail/495/Siaran_Pers_Dewan_Pers_mengenai_Kode_etik_Jurnalistik_dalam_Liputan_Virus_Corona

Dörr, K. N., & Hollnbuchner, K. (2017). Ethical Challenges of Algorithmic Journalism. Digital Journalism, 5(4), 404–419. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2016.1167612

Ferrucci, P. (2018). Networked: Social media’s impact on news production in digital newsrooms. Newspaper Research Journal, 39(1), 6–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739532918761069

Gloviczki, P. J., & Gloviczki, P. J. (2015). Journalism in the Age of Social Media. In Journalism and Memorialization in the Age of Social Media. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137460875_1

Harsono, A. (2012). Agama Saya adalah Jurnalisme (5th ed.). Kanisius.

Hermida, A. (2010). Twittering the news: The emergence of ambient journalism. Journalism Practice, 4(3), 297–308. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512781003640703

Hermida, A. (2013). #Journalism: Reconfiguring journalism research about twitter, one tweet at a time. Digital Journalism, 1(3), 295–313. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2013.808456

Houston, J. B., Schraedley, M. K., Worley, M. E., Reed, K., & Saidi, J. (2019). Disaster Journalism: Fostering Citizen and Community Disaster Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, Recovery, and Resilience Across the Disaster Cycle. Disasters, 43(3), 591–611. https://doi.org/10.1111/disa.12352

Isnanto, B. A. (2020). Solo Zona Hitam Corona! Detik.Com. https://news.detik.com/berita-jawa-tengah/d-5090658/solo-zona-hitam-corona

JRN. (2018). Social media affects the journalistic process on “all levels.” http://journalismresearchnews.org/article-social-media-affects-the-journalistic-process-on-all-levels/

Kovach, B., & Rosenstiel, T. (2001). Sembilan Elemen Jurnalisme (A. Harsono (ed.)). Yayasan Pantau.

Krisdamarjati, Y. A., & Chrysna, M. (2020). Infodemik Tidak Kalah Bahaya dari Covid-19. Kompas.Id. https://interaktif.kompas.id/baca/bahaya-infodemik/

Lindén, C.-G. (2017). Algorithms for journalism: The future of news work. The Journal of Media Innovations. https://doi.org/10.5617/jmi.v4i1.2420

Malecki, K. M. C., Keating, J. A., & Safdar, N. (2020). Crisis Communication and Public Perception of COVID-19 Risk in the Era of Social Media. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 53726(Xx), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa758

Muqsith, M. A. (2020). Tantangan Baru Jurnalisme Dalam Pandemi Covid-19. ’Adalah, 4(September), 251–258.

Nguyen, H., & Nguyen, A. (2020). Covid-19 Misinformation and the Social (Media) Amplification of Risk: A Vietnamese Perspective. Media and Communication, 8(2), 444–447. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v8i2.3227

Nursastri, S. A. (2020). Kementan: Kalung Aromaterapi Bukan Antivirus, tapi Aksesori Kesehatan. Kompas.Com. https://www.kompas.com/sains/read/2020/07/06/120000523/kementan-kalung-aromaterapi-bukan-antivirus-tapi-aksesori-kesehatan

Oriella PR Network. (2013). The New Normal for News. Have Global Media Changed Forever?” The 6th Annual Oriella Digital Journalism Survey. http://www.oriellaprnetwork.com/%0Aresearch

Pathak, K. (2018). An Evaluative Study of Influence of Social Media on Journalism: Interference or Professional Advancement. Social Media and Journalism - Trends, Connections, Implications. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.78979

Paulussen, S., & Harder, R. A. (2014). Social Media References in Newspapers. Journalism Practice, 8(5), 542–551. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2014.894327

Pollack, R., Burki, N., Casstellanos, O., Nadal, V., Gugliemi, S., & Fabeyro, C. G. (2020). Journalism, Press Freedom and Covid-19. https://en.unesco.org/sites/default/files/unesco_covid_brief_en.pdf

Pradhan, P., & Kumari, N. (2018). A study on Journalistic use of Social Media. Amity Journal of Media & Communication Studies, 8(1), 49–59. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21670811.2013.776804

Prajarto, N. (2008). Bencana, Informasi, dan Keterlibatan Media. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial Dan Ilmu Politik. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.22146/jsp.10989

Pramiyanti, A., Mayangsari, I. D., Nuraeni, R., & Firdaus, Y. D. (2020). Public perception on transparency and trust in government information released during the COVID-19 pandemic. Asian Journal for Public Opinion Research, 8(3), 351–376. https://doi.org/10.15206/ajpor.2020.8.3.351

Ricky, M. (2020). Wali Kota Rudy Sebut Solo Layak Disebut Zona Hitam Covid-19! Solopos.Com. https://www.solopos.com/wali-kota-rudy-sebut-solo-layak-disebut-zona-hitam-covid-19-1070478

Safori, A. O. (2018). Journalist use of social media: Guidelines for media organizations. Journal of Social Sciences Research, 2018(Special Issue 5), 772–779. https://doi.org/10.32861/jssr.spi5.772.779

Saputra, I. Y. (2020). Ganjar Pranowo Kesal Solo Disebut Zona Hitam Covid-19: Jarene Sapa? Solopos.Com. https://www.solopos.com/ganjar-pranowo-kesal-solo-disebut-zona-hitam-covid-19-jarene-sapa-1070661

Siregar, A. (2006). Pemberitaan Media Pers Indonesia: Paradigma, Epistimologi, Ruang Publik dan Pendekatan Multikultural. Ilmu Sosial Dan Politik, 9, 255–270.

Suciu, P. (2020, April). During COVID-19 Pandemic It Isn’t Just Fake News But Seriously Bad Misinformation That Is Spreading On Social Media. Forbes.Com. https://www.forbes.com/sites/petersuciu/2020/04/08/during-covid-19-pandemic-it-isnt-just-fake-news-but-seriously-bad-misinformation-that-is-spreading-on-social-media/?sh=425b94957e55

Sushmita, C. I. (2020). Tidak Ada Zona Hitam Pada Zonasi Covid-19 Di Indonesia, Apa Status Solo? Solopos.Com. https://www.solopos.com/tidak-ada-zona-hitam-pada-zonasi-covid-19-di-indonesia-apa-status-solo-1070485

WHO. (2020a). 1st WHO Infodemiology Conference. Who.Int. https://www.who.int/news-room/events/detail/2020/06/30/default-calendar/1st-who-infodemiology-conference

WHO. (2020b). Immunizing the public against misinformation. https://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/immunizing-the-public-against-misinformation

WHO, UN, UNICEF, UNDP, UNESCO, UNAIDS, ITU, Pulse, U. G., & IFRC. (2020). Managing the COVID-19 infodemic: Promoting healthy behaviours and mitigating the harm from misinformation and disinformation. https://www.who.int/news/item/23-09-2020-managing-the-covid-19-infodemic-promoting-healthy-behaviours-and-mitigating-the-harm-from-misinformation-and-disinformation

Winarto. (2017). Etika Jurnalistik di Era Media Digital. In Jurnal Dewan Pers: Bisnis Media dan Jurnalisme di Persimpangan (pp. 35–40).

Zarocostas, J. (2020). How to fight an infodemic. Lancet (London, England), 395(10225), 676. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30461-X

Andany, W. (2020, July 4). Mentan Klaim Kalung Kayu Putih Ampuh Lawan Virus Corona. Cnnindonesia.Com. https://www.cnnindonesia.com/ekonomi/20200703182926-92-520692/mentan-klaim-kalung-kayu-putih-ampuh-lawan-virus-corona

Backholm, K., Ausserhofer, J., Frey, E., Larsen, A. G., Hornmoen, H., Högväg, J., & Reimerth, G. (2017). Crises, Rumours and Reposts: Journalists’ Social Media Content Gathering and Verification Practices in Breaking News Situations. Media and Communication, 5(2), 67–76. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v5i2.878

Barua, Z., Barua, S., Aktar, S., Kabir, N., & Li, M. (2020). Effects of misinformation on COVID-19 individual responses and recommendations for resilience of disastrous consequences of misinformation. Progress in Disaster Science, 8, 100119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pdisas.2020.100119

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2012). Thematic analysis. In APA handbook of research methods in psychology, Vol 2: Research designs: Quantitative, qualitative, neuropsychological, and biological. https://doi.org/10.1037/13620-004

Broersma, M., & Graham, T. (2013). Twitter as a News Source. How Dutch and British Newspapers Used Tweets in Their News Coverage. Journalism Practice, 4, 446–464. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2013.802481

Casero-Ripollés, A. (2020). Impact of covid-19 on the media system. Communicative and democratic consequences of news consumption during the outbreak. Profesional de La Informacion, 29(2), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.mar.23

Chaniscara, C. (2020). Warga Solo Klaim Temukan Jamu Penyembuh Covid-19, Sembuhkan 7 Pasien. Solopos.Com. https://www.solopos.com/warga-solo-klaim-temukan-jamu-penyembuh-covid-19-sembuhkan-7-pasien-1056265

Chou, W. S., Oh, Ap., & Klein, W. M. P. (2018). Addressing Health-Related Misinformation on Social Media. American Medical Association, 105(6), 372. https://doi.org/10.1511/2017.105.6.372

Cinelli, M., Quattrociocchi, W., Galeazzi, A., Valensise, C. M., Brugnoli, E., Schmidt, A. L., Zola, P., Zollo, F., & Scala, A. (2020). The COVID-19 social media infodemic. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73510-5

Creswell, J. W. (2016). Research Design (Pendekatan Metode Kualitatif, Kuantitatif, dan Campuran). In Terjemahan Bahasa Indonesia. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.20234

Department of Global Communications. (2020). UN tackles ‘infodemic’ of misinformation and cybercrime in COVID-19 crisis. Un.Org. https://www.un.org/en/un-coronavirus-communications-team/un-tackling-‘infodemic’-misinformation-and-cybercrime-covid-19

Peraturan Dewan Pers, Pub. L. No. 5 (2008).

Dewan Pers. (2020). Siaran Pers Media Diimbau Perhatikan Kode Etik Jurnalistik. https://dewanpers.or.id/publikasi/siaranpers_detail/495/Siaran_Pers_Dewan_Pers_mengenai_Kode_etik_Jurnalistik_dalam_Liputan_Virus_Corona

Dörr, K. N., & Hollnbuchner, K. (2017). Ethical Challenges of Algorithmic Journalism. Digital Journalism, 5(4), 404–419. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2016.1167612

Ferrucci, P. (2018). Networked: Social media’s impact on news production in digital newsrooms. Newspaper Research Journal, 39(1), 6–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739532918761069

Gloviczki, P. J., & Gloviczki, P. J. (2015). Journalism in the Age of Social Media. In Journalism and Memorialization in the Age of Social Media. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137460875_1

Harsono, A. (2012). Agama Saya adalah Jurnalisme (5th ed.). Kanisius.

Herman. (2018). Lawan Hoax, Mafindo dan 22 Media Luncurkan CekFakta.com. Beritasatu.Com. https://www.beritasatu.com/nasional/491206/lawan-hoax-mafindo-dan-22-media-luncurkan-cekfaktacom

Hermida, A. (2010). Twittering the news: The emergence of ambient journalism. Journalism Practice, 4(3), 297–308. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512781003640703

Hermida, A. (2013). #Journalism: Reconfiguring journalism research about twitter, one tweet at a time. Digital Journalism, 1(3), 295–313. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2013.808456

Houston, J. B., Schraedley, M. K., Worley, M. E., Reed, K., & Saidi, J. (2019). Disaster Journalism: Fostering Citizen and Community Disaster Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, Recovery, and Resilience Across the Disaster Cycle. Disasters, 43(3), 591–611. https://doi.org/10.1111/disa.12352

Ireton, C., & Posetti, and J. (Eds.). (2018). JOURNALISM , ‘ FAKE NEWS ’ & DISINFORMATION Handbook for Journalism Education and Training. UNESCO.

Isnanto, B. A. (2020). Solo Zona Hitam Corona! Detik.Com. https://news.detik.com/berita-jawa-tengah/d-5090658/solo-zona-hitam-corona

JRN. (2018). Social media affects the journalistic process on “all levels.” http://journalismresearchnews.org/article-social-media-affects-the-journalistic-process-on-all-levels/

Kemendikbud. (2020). Konsep Dasar, Disinformasi dan Malinformasi. Kementerian Pendidikan Daan Kebudayaan. https://guruberbagi.kemdikbud.go.id/aksi/konsep-dasar-disinformasi-dan-malinformasi/

Kovach, B., & Rosenstiel, T. (2001). Sembilan Elemen Jurnalisme (A. Harsono (Ed.)). Yayasan Pantau.

Krisdamarjati, Y. A., & Chrysna, M. (2020). Infodemik Tidak Kalah Bahaya dari Covid-19. Kompas.Id. https://interaktif.kompas.id/baca/bahaya-infodemik/

Lindén, C.-G. (2017). Algorithms for journalism: The future of news work. The Journal of Media Innovations. https://doi.org/10.5617/jmi.v4i1.2420

Malecki, K. M. C., Keating, J. A., & Safdar, N. (2020). Crisis Communication and Public Perception of COVID-19 Risk in the Era of Social Media. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 53726(Xx), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa758

Muqsith, M. A. (2020). Tantangan Baru Jurnalisme Dalam Pandemi Covid-19. ’Adalah, 4(September), 251–258.

Nguyen, H., & Nguyen, A. (2020). Covid-19 Misinformation and the Social (Media) Amplification of Risk: A Vietnamese Perspective. Media and Communication, 8(2), 444–447. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v8i2.3227

Nursastri, S. A. (2020). Kementan: Kalung Aromaterapi Bukan Antivirus, tapi Aksesori Kesehatan. Kompas.Com. https://www.kompas.com/sains/read/2020/07/06/120000523/kementan-kalung-aromaterapi-bukan-antivirus-tapi-aksesori-kesehatan

Oriella PR Network. (2013). The New Normal for News. Have Global Media Changed Forever?” The 6th Annual Oriella Digital Journalism Survey. http://www.oriellaprnetwork.com/%0Aresearch

Pathak, K. (2018). An Evaluative Study of Influence of Social Media on Journalism: Interference or Professional Advancement. Social Media and Journalism - Trends, Connections, Implications. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.78979

Paulussen, S., & Harder, R. A. (2014). Social Media References in Newspapers. Journalism Practice, 8(5), 542–551. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2014.894327

Pollack, R., Burki, N., Casstellanos, O., Nadal, V., Gugliemi, S., & Fabeyro, C. G. (2020). Journalism, Press Freedom and Covid-19. https://en.unesco.org/sites/default/files/unesco_covid_brief_en.pdf

Pradhan, P., & Kumari, N. (2018). A study on Journalistic use of Social Media. Amity Journal of Media & Communication Studies, 8(1), 49–59. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21670811.2013.776804

Prajarto, N. (2008). Bencana, Informasi, dan Keterlibatan Media. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial Dan Ilmu Politik. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.22146/jsp.10989

Pramiyanti, A., Mayangsari, I. D., Nuraeni, R., & Firdaus, Y. D. (2020). Public perception on transparency and trust in government information released during the COVID-19 pandemic. Asian Journal for Public Opinion Research, 8(3), 351–376. https://doi.org/10.15206/ajpor.2020.8.3.351

Ricky, M. (2020). Wali Kota Rudy Sebut Solo Layak Disebut Zona Hitam Covid-19! Solopos.Com. https://www.solopos.com/wali-kota-rudy-sebut-solo-layak-disebut-zona-hitam-covid-19-1070478

Safori, A. O. (2018). Journalist use of social media: Guidelines for media organizations. Journal of Social Sciences Research, 2018(Special Issue 5), 772–779. https://doi.org/10.32861/jssr.spi5.772.779

Saputra, I. Y. (2020). Ganjar Pranowo Kesal Solo Disebut Zona Hitam Covid-19: Jarene Sapa? Solopos.Com. https://www.solopos.com/ganjar-pranowo-kesal-solo-disebut-zona-hitam-covid-19-jarene-sapa-1070661

Scheufele, D. A., & Krause, N. M. (2019). Science audiences, misinformation, and fake news. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(16), 7662–7669. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1805871115

Siregar, A. (2006). Pemberitaan Media Pers Indonesia: Paradigma, Epistimologi, Ruang Publik dan Pendekatan Multikultural. Ilmu Sosial Dan Politik, 9, 255–270.

Suciu, P. (2020, April). During COVID-19 Pandemic It Isn’t Just Fake News But Seriously Bad Misinformation That Is Spreading On Social Media. Forbes.Com. https://www.forbes.com/sites/petersuciu/2020/04/08/during-covid-19-pandemic-it-isnt-just-fake-news-but-seriously-bad-misinformation-that-is-spreading-on-social-media/?sh=425b94957e55

Sushmita, C. I. (2020). Tidak Ada Zona Hitam Pada Zonasi Covid-19 Di Indonesia, Apa Status Solo? Solopos.Com. https://www.solopos.com/tidak-ada-zona-hitam-pada-zonasi-covid-19-di-indonesia-apa-status-solo-1070485

UNESCO. (2020). COVID-19 - Fighting ‘infodemic’ and social stigma through community media in India. https://en.unesco.org/news/covid-19-fighting-infodemic-and-social-stigma-through-community-media-india

Volkin, S. (2020). Recognizing Disinformation during the Covid-19 Pandemic. https://hub.jhu.edu/2020/05/08/thomas-rid-disinformation-in-covid-19-pandemic/

WHO. (2020a). 1st WHO Infodemiology Conference. Who.Int. https://www.who.int/news-room/events/detail/2020/06/30/default-calendar/1st-who-infodemiology-conference

WHO. (2020b). Immunizing the public against misinformation. https://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/immunizing-the-public-against-misinformation

WHO, UN, UNICEF, UNDP, UNESCO, UNAIDS, ITU, Pulse, U. G., & IFRC. (2020). Managing the COVID-19 infodemic: Promoting healthy behaviours and mitigating the harm from misinformation and disinformation. https://www.who.int/news/item/23-09-2020-managing-the-covid-19-infodemic-promoting-healthy-behaviours-and-mitigating-the-harm-from-misinformation-and-disinformation

Wibhisono, I. G. L. A. K. (2020). Framing Analysis of the Kompas’ COVID-19 Coverage: January 2020 Edition. Jurnal ASPIKOM, 5(2), 219. https://doi.org/10.24329/aspikom.v5i2.717

Winarto. (2017). Etika Jurnalistik di Era Media Digital. In Jurnal Dewan Pers: Bisnis Media dan Jurnalisme di Persimpangan (pp. 35–40).

Zarocostas, J. (2020). How to fight an infodemic. Lancet (London, England), 395(10225), 676. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30461-X




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14421/pjk.v14i1.2097

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Published by:
Communication Science Departement
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities
UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta
Email: profetik.uinsuka@gmail.com