Sound Correspondences of Modern Standard Arabic Moroccan Arabic and Najdi Arabic

Darsita Suparno, Ulil Abshar, M. Wildan, Tri Pujiati


This paper studies the process of sound correspondences that occur in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), Moroccan Arabic (MAR), and Najdi Arabic (NAR). It attempts to find answers for the following questions: a) What are the identical word pairs, words couples that have a phonemic correspondence, a phonetic similarity, and a pair of words that contains difference of one phoneme, b) What are the process of morphophonemic in the form of assimilation, metathesis, and epenthesis. It is addressed to portray the process of morphophonemic assimilation, metathesis and epenthesis in three Arabic languages using Crowley’s theory. This study used 207 of Morris Swadesh's basic vocabulary as the key standard procedure for collecting data. The criteria adopted to analyze the data were orthographic, sound-change, phonological, and morpheme contrast. This research used descriptive qualitative method. The source of the data was basic-word vocabulary. The data were gathered from three dictionaries as sources to get information. The data were analyzed by using structural linguistics, especially phonology, morphology, and semantics. This investigation informed several aspects of findings such as identifying prefixes, suffixes, assimilation, metathesis, and epenthesis. Using the Swadesh vocabulary list, the results of this study found 207 vocabularies for each language. By analyzing parts of speech, it was found that these vocabularies can be classified into five-word classes, namely, nouns, pronouns, verb, adjectives, adverbs, and determiners.


morphophonemic; metathesis; epenthesis; Moroccan; Najdi Arabic

Full Text:



Ageli, Nuri. R. (2013). A Bird’s Eye View of the Diglossic Situation in Arabic. International Journal of Semat, 1(2), 233–242.

Al-Essa, A. (2009). When Najd Meets Hijaz: Dialect Contact in Jeddah. In Arabic Dialectology: In Honour of Clive Holes on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, edited by Enam Al-Wer and Rudolf Erik de Jong. Brill.

Al-Ghamdi, N. A. (2018). Linguistic Variation of Pardigmatic Sound Change in Gulf Arabic. Journal of Fikr WaIbda, Modern Literature Association, 1–55.

Al-Mansoob, N. T., & Alrefaee, Y. M. (2018). Pragmatic Transfer of Yemeni EFL Learners: An Interlanguage Pragmatic Study of Yemenis and Americans. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

Al-Mansoob, N. T., Patil, K. S., & Alrefaee, Y. M. (2019). A Cross-cultural Study of The Speech Act of Compliments in American English and Yemeni Arabic. Journal of The Association for Arabic and English, 5(1), 1–12.

AlQahtani, S., & AlArifi, N. (2020). The Grammaticalization of Auxiliary Verbs in Najdi Arabic: A Syntactic and DM Account. Vol. 32(2), 1–14.

Anis, M. Y. (2015). Bahasa Arab di Wilayah Hijaz Arab Saudi: Kajian Geografi Dialek. International Seminar of the Middle East, 110–134.

Anttila, R. (1972). An Introduction to Historical and Comparative Linguistics. Macmillah.

Anttila, R. (1989). Historical and Comparative Linguistics. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Ben Hamed, M., Defradas, M. B., & Sultan, R. H.-. (2015). The evolution of Arabic(s) Making the Idiom speak for the Deme. International Journal of Modern Anthropology, 18, 94–166.

Brierley, C., Sawalha, M., Barry, H., & Atwel, E. (2016). A Verified Arabic-IPA Mapping for Arabic Transcription Technology, Informed by Quranic Recitation, Traditional Arabic Linguistics, and Modern Phonetics. Oxford University Press on Behalf of the University of Manchester., LXI (1), 157–187. 10.1093/jss/fgv035

Broselow, E., & Ouali, H. (2009). Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics XXII-XXIII. John Benjamins Publishing Company,

Campbell, L. (2013). Historical Linguistics An Introduction. Edinburg University.

Cote, R. A. (2009). Choosing One Dialect for the Arabic Speaking World: A Status Planning Dilemma. Arizona Working Papers in SLA & Teaching, The University of Arizona, 16, 75–97.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design Qualitative Quantiative and Mixed Methods Approaches Third Edition (Third Edition). SAGE Publication, Inc.

Crowley, T., & Bowern, C. (2010). An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. Oxford University Press.

Hachimi, A. (2018). Arabic Dialect Contact and Change in Casablanca: The Role of Simplification and Salience in the Adoption of a Morphosyntactic Variable. University of Nebraska Press, 60(1), 60–93.

Haitham, T., & Khateb, A. (2013). Resolving the Orthographic Ambiguity during Visual Word Recognition in Arabic: An Event-Related Potential. Jurnal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7 (Article 821), 1–12.

Hickey, R. (2003). Language change in Handbook of pragmatics. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Hock, H. (1988). Principal of Historical Lingustics. Mouton de Gruyter.

Hock, H. H., & Joseph, B. D. (2009). Language History Language Change and Language Relationship. De Gruyter.

Ismail, S., M., Alshayhan, N. R., Alwafai, S., & Essam, B. A. (2019). Frequency of Using Najdi Arabic Words Among Saudi College Male Students. 9(2), 24–29.

Issa, K. M. (1987). Al-lugha Al-Arabiyya Baina Al-Fusha wa Al- Ammiyya. Arabic (The Arabic Language Between the Classical and the Colloquial varieties). Ad-dar Al-Jamahiriyya Press.Misurata. Libya. Ad-dar Al-Jamahiriyya Press.

Keraf, G. (1996a). Keraf, Gorys. 1996. Linguistik Bandingan Historis. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia. Gramedia.

Keraf, G. (1996b). Linguistik Bandingan Historis. Gramedia.

Krisanjaya. (2011). Linguistik Bandingan. Universitas Terbuka.

Matar, S. A., Basal, N., & Weintraub, N. (2019). Cross‑linguistic transfer of handwriting performance: A comparison of Arabic bilingual and monolingual elementary school students. Springer, 32, 1257–1274.

Munther, Y. (2015). The Integrated Approach to Arabic Instruction. Routledge.

Newman, D. L. (2008). The phonetic status of Arabic within the world’s languages: The uniqueness of the lu“At Al-d÷AAd. Durham University, 65–75.

Ni’mah, U. N. (2009). Bahasa Arab sebagai Bahasa Diglosis. Adabiyyāt Jurnal Bahasa Dan Sastra, 8(1).

Otero, M. A. (2019). A Historical Reconstruction of the Koman Language Family [Oregon]. Proquest 139022554.

Sedeek, Y. (2019). Factors that Influence the Pronunciation of Interdentals in Modern Standard Arabic and English by Egyptian Arabic Speakers. [The University of Mississippi].

Shaw, J. A., Gafos, A., Hoole, P., & Zeroual, C. (2011). Dynamic invariance in the phonetic expression of syllable structure: A case study of Moroccan Arabic consonant clusters. Cambridge University Press, 28(3), 455–490. 10.1 01 7/S095267571 1000224

Thaha, H., & Hadad Saiegh, E. (2016). The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study. J Psycholinguist Springer, 45, 507–535. 10.1007/s10936-015-9362-6

Younes, M. (2015). The Integrated Approach to Arabic Instruction. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.

Yule, G. (2013). The Study of Language. Cambridge University Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.