Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Articles
Published: 31-07-2023

The Qur’an in Europe, A European Qur’an: A History of Reading, Translation, Polemical Confrontation and Scholarly Appreciation

ERC-SYnergy EuQu – The European Qur’an, Università di Napoli L’Orientale
Islam in Europe Intellectual History European Qur’an EuQu - European Qur’an Project

Abstract

The broad interest in the emergence and presence of Islam and Muslims by Europe goes back to the centuries immediately following Muslim conquests and spread through the Mediterranean (from the 1st ce. AH / 7th cen. AD). A number of studies in the previous decades have discussed the perceptions and evaluations of Islam by Europeans from the Middle Ages till modern times, at times focusing on the Qur’an. How the Islamic holy text was known, collected in manuscripts, translated, read, used and polemically discussed in its contents from the 12th century until contemporary times is a chapter of European intellectual activity. Recent research and above all the projects financed by the European commission, which are currently being carried out, are a contribution to the study of the Qur’an and in particular to the history of the presence of the Qur’an in European consciousness. In this field the project “EuQu – The European Qur’an” is particularly significant; it has the ambition to demonstrate how the reading and uses of the Qur’an were important in the intellectual, cultural and religious developments of Europe through the ages.

References

  1. Aksulu, N.M. Bartholomäus Georgievićs Türkenschrift ‘De Turcarum ritu et caeremomiis’ (1544) und ihre beiden deutschen Übersetzungen von 1545. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Türkenbildes in Europa. Stuttgart, 2005.
  2. al., A. Bündgens et. "Die Errores legi Mahumeti des Johannes von Segovia." Neulateinisches Jahrbuch, 2013: 27-60.
  3. al., M. Borrmans et. Il Corano. Traduzioni, traduttori e lettori in Italia. Milano, 2000.
  4. Andrés, J. Confusión o confutación de la secta Mahomética y del Alcorán, preliminary study by E. Ruiz García, transcription of the text by M.I. García-Monge. Mérida, 2003.
  5. Aufrère, S.H. La momie et la tempête: Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc et la curiosité égyptienne en Provence au début du XVIIe siècle. Avignon, 1990.
  6. Ben-Tov, A. "Historia literaria Alcorani: two Lutheran scholars chronicling Oriental scholarship at the turn of the eighteenth century." In Scholarship between Europe and the Levant. Essays in Honour of Alastair Hamilton, by eds. J. Loop and J. Kraye, 195-216. Leiden – Boston, 2020.
  7. Ben-Tov, A. "Johann Zechendorff (1580-1662) and Arabic Studies at Zwickau’s Latin School." In The Teaching and Learning of Arabic in Early Modern Europe, by eds. J. Loop, A. Hamilton, & C. Burnett, 57-92. Leiden - Boston, 2017.
  8. Bevilacqua, Alexander. "The Qur’an translations of Marracci and Sale." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 2013: 93-130.
  9. —. The Republic of Arabic Letters. Islam and the European Enlightenment. Cambridge, 2018.
  10. Bibliander’s, T. Machumetis saracenorum principis, eiusque successorum vitae, doctrina ac ipse Alcoran…. Basileae, 1543.
  11. Biechler, J. "A new face toward islam. Nicholas of Cusa and John of Segovia." In Nicholas of Cusa in search of God and Wisdom. Essays in honour of Morimichi Watanabe by the American Cusanus Society, by eds. Christianson G. and T. Izbicki, 185-202. Leiden, 1991.
  12. Bobzin, H. "Die Koranpolyglotte des Andreas Acoluthus (1654-1704)." In Germano-Turcica. Zur Geschichte des Türkisch-Lernens in den deutschsprachigen Ländern, 57-59. Bamberg, 1987.
  13. Bobzin, H. "Ein oberschlesischer Koran gelehrter: Domenicus Germanus de Silesia, O.F.M. (1588-1670)." In Die oberschlesische Literaturlandschaft im 17. Jahrhundert, by ed. G. Kosellek, 221-31. Bielefeld, 2001.
  14. Bobzin, H. "Jean Bodin über den Venezianer Korandruck von 1537/38." Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, 1991: 95-105: 98.
  15. Bobzin, H. "Latin Translations of the Koran. A short overview." Der Islam, 1993: 193-206.
  16. —. Ließ ein Papst den Koran verbrennen? Mutmaßungen zum Venetianer Koranausdruck von 1537/38. München, 2013.
  17. Bobzin, Hartmut. Der Koran im Zeitalter der Reformation. 1995.
  18. Borrmans, M. "Observations à propos de la première édition imprimée du Coran à Venise." Quaderni di Studi Arabi, 1990: 3-12.
  19. Borrmans, M. "Présentation de la première édition du Coran à Venise." Quaderni di Studi Arabi, 1991: 93-126.
  20. Bougarel, X. "Bosnian Islam as ‘European Islam’: Limits and Shifts of a Concept." In Islam in Europe, by ed. Aziz Al-Azmeh, & E. Fokas, 96–124. Cambridge, 2007.
  21. Braches, E. "Raphelengius’s Naschi and Maghribi. Some Reflections on the origins of Arab typography in the Low Countries." Quaerendo, Quaerendo: 235-245.
  22. Burman, T.E. "How an Italian friar read his Arabic Qur’an." Dante Studies, 2007: 93-106.
  23. —. Reading the Qurʾān in Latin Christendom. Philadelphia, 2007.
  24. —. Religious Polemic and the Intellectual History of the Mozarabs, c. 1050-1200. Leiden, 1994.
  25. Burman, T.E. "Two Dominicans, a Lost Manuscript, and Medieval Christian Thought on Islam." In Medieval Exegesis and Religious Difference. Comemntary, Conflict, and Community in the Premodern Mediterranean, by Szpiech (ed.), 71-86, 230-3. New York, 2015.
  26. Burnett, C. "The works of Petrus Alfonsi: questions of authenticity." Medium Ævum, 1997.
  27. Canals, X. Casassas. "El Alcorán de Bellús: un alcorán mudéjar de principios del siglo XVI, con traducciones y comentarios en catalán, castellano y latín." Alhadra, 2015: 155–78.
  28. Casari, M. "Eleven good reasons for learning Arabic in Late Renaissance Italy: A memorandum by Giovan Battista Raimondi." In Renaissance Studies in Honor of Joseph Connors, by M. Israels, & eds. L.A. Waldman, 545-557. Florence, 2013.
  29. Cecini, U. Alcoranus latinus. Eine sprachliche und kulturwissenschaftliche Analyse der Koranübersetzungen von Robert von Ketton und Marcus von Toledo. Berlin-Münster, 2012.
  30. —. Masā’il ʿAbdallāh ibn Salām (Doctrina Mahumet). Kritische Edition des arabischen Textes mit Einleitung und Übersetzung. Mit einem Anhang zur lateinischen Doctrina Mahumet von Concetta Finiello und Reinhold F. Glei. Wiesbaden, 2021.
  31. Cesari, J. "Conclusion: Is There a European Islam?" In The Oxford Handbook of European Islam, by ed. J. Cesari, 802–6. Oxford, 2014.
  32. Costigliolo, M. "Qur'anic Sources of Nicholas of Cusa." Mediaevistik, 2011.
  33. Coustou, J. Balagna. Arabe et humanism dans la France des derniers Valois. Paris , 1989.
  34. Déroche, F. and Martínez Gázquez, J. "Lire et traduire le Coran au Moyen ge. Les gloses Latines du manuscrit Arabe 384 de la BnF." Comptes Rendus des Séances - Académie des inscriptions & belles-lettres, 2010: 1021-1040.
  35. E.g., V. Yankova. "The Tatars in Lithuania and their ethnohistory." earbook of Balkan and Baltic studies, 2021: 298–316.
  36. Echevarria, A. The Fortress of Faith. The Attitude towards Muslims in fifteenth Century. Leiden, 1999.
  37. Ehmann, J. Luther, Türken und Islam: eine Untersuchung zum Türken- und Islambild Martin Luthers (1515-1546). Heidelberg, 2008.
  38. Elsheikh, M.S. "I manoscritti del Corano conservati nelle biblioteche pubbliche di Firenze." La Bibliofilia, 2013: 553-615: 553-61.
  39. Euler, W.A. Concordance: Nicholas of Cusa and Christian-Muslim Dialogue. Leiden: Brill, 2017.
  40. F. Déroche, N. de Castilla and L. Tahali. Les livres du sultan: Matériaux pour une histoire du livre et de la vie intellectuelle du Maroc saadien (XVIe siècle). Paris, 2022 .
  41. Fabris, M.P. Pedani. Ludovico Marracci e la conoscenza dell'islam in Italia”, Campus Major 16 (2004), 6-23.
  42. Z. Elmarsafy, The Enlightment Qur’ān: the Politics of translation and the Construction of Islam. Oxford , 2009.
  43. Fani, eds. S., and M. Farina. La via delle lettere. La Tipografia Medicea tra Roma e l’Oriente. Firenze , 2012.
  44. Feingold, M. "Learning Arabic in Early Modern England." In The Teaching and Learning of Arabic in Early Modern Europe, by eds. J. Loop, A. Hamilton, & C. Burnett, 33-56. Leiden - Boston: Brill, 2017.
  45. Feingold, M. "The Turkish Alcoran’: New Light on the 1649 English Translation of the Koran." Huntington Library Quarterly, 2012: 475-501.
  46. Francisco, A.S. Martin Luther and Islam. A Study in Sixteenth-Century Polemics and Apologetics. Leiden – Boston, 2007.
  47. Friedman, F. The Bosnian Muslims: Denial of a Nation, Boulder. CO, 1996.
  48. G.L. D’Errico, ed. Il Corano e il pontefice. Ludovico Marracci tra cultura islamica e Curia papale. Roma, 2015.
  49. García-Arenal, eds. M., and G. Wiegers. The Iberian Qur’an. From the Middle Ages to Modern Times. Berlin – Boston, 2022.
  50. García-Arenal, M. "Los libros de los Moriscos y los eruditos orientales." al-Qanṭara, 2010: 611-646.
  51. García-Arenal, M. "The Double Polemic of Martin de Figuerola`s Lumbre de fe contra el Alcorán (1519)." In Polemical Encounters: Polemics between Christians, Jews and Muslims in Iberia and beyond, 155–78. University Park, 2019.
  52. García-Arenal, M., and F. Rodríguez Mediano. "Los libros de los moriscos y los eruditos orientales." Al-Qanṭara, 2010: 611–46.
  53. —. The Orient in Spain: Converted Muslims, the Forged Lead Books of Granada and the Rise of Orientalism. Leiden, 2013.
  54. Gázquez, J. Martínez, and F. González Múñoz (eds). Alchoran siue lex Saracenorum: edición crítica y estudio. Madrid, 2022.
  55. Gazquez, Martinez. "El Prólogo de Juan de Segovia al Corán (Qur'an) trilingüe. (1456)." Mittelateinisches Jahrburch, 2003: 389-410.
  56. George-Tvrtković, R. A Christian Pilgrim in Medieval Iraq. Riccoldo da Montecroce’s Encounter with Islam. Turnhout, 2012.
  57. Gerstenberg, A. "Stages of French orientalism in the Mirror of Koran Translations." In Frühe Koranübersetzungen. Europäische und aussereuropäische Fallstudien, by ed. R.F. Glei, 159-207. Bochum, 2012.
  58. Gerstenberg, A. "Stages of French orientalism in the Mirror of Koran Translations." In Frühe Koranübersetzungen. Europäische und aussereuropäische Fallstudien, by ed. R.F. Glei, 159-207. Bochum , 2012.
  59. Ginzburg, C. he Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller, Translated by J.A. Tedeschi and A. Tedeschi. Baltimore, 1992.
  60. Glei, R. "A presumed lost Latin translation of the Qurʾān (Johann Zechendorff, 1632)”, Neulateinisches Jahrbuch." Journal of Neo-Latin Language and Literature, 2016: 361-72.
  61. Glei, R. "Arabismus latine personatus. Die Koranübersetzung von Ludovico Marracci (1698) und die Funktion des Lateinischen." Jahrbuch für Europaeische Wissenschaftskultur, 2009: 93-115.
  62. Glei, R.F. "Der Mistikafer und andere Missverstaendnisse. Zur Frühbyzantinischen Koranübersetzung." In Frühe Koranübersetzungen. Europäische und aussereuropäische Fallstudien, by ed. R.F. Glei, 9-24. Bochum, 2012.
  63. Glei, R.F., and S. Reichmuth. "Religion between Last Judgement, Law, and faith: Koranic dīn and its rendering in Latin translations of the Koran." Religion, 2012: 247-71.
  64. Grévin, B. "Le ‘Coran’ de Mithridate” (Ms. Vat. Ebr. 357) à la croisée des savoirs arabes dans l’Italie du XVe siècle." al-Qanṭara, 2010: 513-548.
  65. Grévin, Benoît. "Flavius Mithridate au travail sur le Coran." In Flavio Mitridate mediatore tra culture nel contesto dell’ebraismo siciliano del XV secolo, 27-46. Palermo, 2012.
  66. "Connaisance et enseignement de l’arabe dans l’Italie du XVe siècle: quelques jalons." In Maghreb-Italie. Des Passeurs médiévaux à l’Orientalisme moderne (XIIIe-milieu XXe siècle, by ed. B. Grévin, 103-38. Roma, 2010.
  67. H. Pasqua, ed. Nicolas de Cues et l’Islam. Louvain-la-Neuve, 2013.
  68. Hagemann, L. "Die erste lateinische Koranübersetzung – Mittel zur verständigung zwischen Christen und Muslimen im Mittelalter?" In Orientalische Kultur und Europäisches Mittelalter, by De Gruyter, A. Zimmerman (eds), & I. Craemer-Ruegenberg (eds), 45-58. Berlin, 1985.
  69. Hamilton. "Nam tirones sumus’ Franciscus Raphelengius’ Lexicon Arabico-Latinum (Leiden 1613)." De Gulden Passer, 1988-89: 557-589: 567.
  70. —. The Forbidden Fruit, the Koran in Early Modern Europe. London, 2008.
  71. Hamilton, A. "A Lutheran translator for the Qur’an. A late seventeenth-century quest." In The Republic of Letters and the Levant, by A. Hamilton, M.H. van den Boogert, & eds. B. Westerwell, 197-221. Leiden – Boston, 2005.
  72. Hamilton, A. "The Qur’ān as chrestomathy in early modern Europe." In The Teaching and Learning of Arabic in Early Modern Europe, by eds. J. Loop, A. Hamilton, & C. Burnett, 2017. Leiden - Boston: Brill, 214-229: 214.
  73. Hamilton, A. "The study of Islam in early modern Europe." Archiv für Religionsgeschichte, 2001: 169-182.
  74. Hamilton, A. "To rescue the honour of the Germans’: Qur’an translations by eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century German protestants." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 2014: 173-209.
  75. —. William Bedwell, the Arabist, 1563-1632. Leiden, 1985.
  76. Hamilton, A., and F. Richard. André du Ryer and Oriental Studies in Seventeenth-Century France. London – Oxford, 2004.
  77. Hashas, M. The Idea of European Islam: Religion, Ethics, Politics and Perpetual Modernity. London, 2019.
  78. Hernández, C. Ferrero, and J. Tolan (eds). The Latin Qur’an, 1143-1500 Translation, Transition, Interpretation. Berlin, 2021.
  79. Hershenzon, D. "Title: Traveling Libraries: The Arabic Manuscripts of Muley Zidan and the Escorial Library." Journal of Early Modern History, 2014: 535-558.
  80. Hinrichsen, Laura. Looted Letters. Book Culture Of Ḥafṣid Ifrīqiya (1229-1574) and Arabic Manuscripts in Early Modern Europe after the Sack of Tunis (1535). Wolfson College, University of Oxford, 2021.
  81. Hollander, A. den. "The Qur’an in the Low Countries. Early Printed Dutsch and French Translations." Quaerendo, 2015: 209-39.
  82. Hopkins, J. Nicholas of Cusa’s De Pace Fidei and Cribratio Alkorani. Translation and Analysis. Minneapolis, 1990.
  83. Hopkins, J. "The role of ‘pia interpretatio’ in Nicholas of Cusa’s hermeutical approach to the Koran." In Concordia Discors. Studi su Niccolò Cusano e l’umanesimo europeo offerti a Giovanni Santinello, by ed. G. Piaia, 251-73. Padua, 1993.
  84. Hughes, P. "In the footsteps of Servetus: Biandrata, Dávid, and the Quran." Journal of Unitarian Universalist History, 2006: 57-63.
  85. Hughes, P. "Servetus and the Quran." Journal of Unitarian Universalist History, 2005: 55-70.
  86. Jones. "Piracy, war, and the acquisition of Arabic manuscripts in Renaissance Europe." Manuscripts of the Middle East, 1987: 96-110.
  87. Jones, J. "Thomas Erpenius (1584-1624) on the value of the Arabic language." Manuscripts of the Middle East, 1986: 15-25.
  88. Jones, R. Learning Arabic in Renaissance Europe. Leiden – Boston, 2020.
  89. Knoch, W. "Verteidigung als Annäherung? Die Auseinandersetzung des Nikolaus von Kues mit dem Islam im Spiegel der Cribratio Alkorani." In Herbst des Mittelalters? Fragen zur Bewertung des 14. Und 15. Jahrhunderts, by eds. Aertsen J. and M. Pickavé, 393-405. Berlin , 2004.
  90. Konigsveld, P.S. van. "Andalusian-Arabic manuscripts from Christian Spain. A comparative intercultural approach." Israel Oriental Studies, 1992: 75-110.
  91. Kuntz, Marion L. Guillaume Postel. Prophet of the Restitution of All Things: His Life and Thought. The Hague – Boston –London, 1981.
  92. Lappin, A.J., and Robert of Ketton (eds). Alcoran Latinus. Volume III. Editiones Theodori Biblianderi (1543 et 1550). Roma, 2011.
  93. Larzul, S. "Les premieres traductions françaises du Coran (XVIIe-XIXe siècles)." Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions, 2009: 147-165.
  94. Léchot, P.-O. Luther et Mahomet: Le Protestantisme d’Europe Occidentale Devant l’islam, XVIe-XVIIIe Siècle. Paris, 2021.
  95. Lisy-Wagner, L. Islam, Christianity and the Making of Czech Identity, 1453-1683. Farnham-Burlington, 2013.
  96. Loop, J. "Divine poetry? Early Modern European Orientalists on the beauty of the Qur’ān." Church History and Religious Culture, 2009: 455-488.
  97. Loop, J. "Johann Heinrich Hottinger (1620-1667) and the Historia Orientalis." Church History and Religious Culture, 2008: 169-203.
  98. Loop, J., and Johann Heinrich Hottinger. Arabic and Islamic Studies in the Seeventeenth Century. Oxford, 2013.
  99. López-Morillas, C. El Corán de Toledo : edición y estudio del manuscrito 235 de la Biblioteca de Castilla-La Mancha. Gijón, 2011.
  100. López-Morillas, C. "El Coran romanceado: la traducción contenida en el manuscrito T 235." Sharq al-Andalus, 1999-2002: 263-284.
  101. López-Morillas, C. "The genealogy of the Spanish Qur’ān." Journal of Islamic Studies, 2006: 255-294.
  102. M. García-Arenal and G. Wiegers, eds. A man of three worlds: Samuel Pallache, a Moroccan Jew in Catholic and Protestant Europe. Baltimore – London, 2003.
  103. M. Perani and G. Corazzol, eds. Flavio Mitridate mediatore fra culture nel contesto dell'ebraismo siciliano del XV secolo. Palermo, 2012.
  104. M. Perani, ed. Guglielmo Raimondo Moncada alias Flavio Mitridate. Un ebreo converso siciliano. Palermo, 2008.
  105. Malcolm, N. "The 1649 English translation of the Koran: its origins and significance." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 2012: 261-295.
  106. Malcolm, N. "The study of Islam in early modern Europe: obstacles and missed opportunities." In eds. P.N. Miller; F. Louis, by 1500-1800 Antiquarianism and Intellectual Life in Europe and China, 265-288. Ann Arbor, 2012.
  107. Martin, F.X. Friar, Reformer, and Renaissance Scholar. Life and Works of Giles of Viterbo. Villanova, 1992.
  108. Masegosa, A. García. Germán de Silesia. Interpretatio Alcorani Litteralis. Parte I: la traducción latina; introducción y edición crítica. Madrid, 2009.
  109. Matar, N. "Alexander Ross and the first English translation of the Qur’ān." The Muslim World, 1998: 81-92.
  110. Matar, N. "Arabic Books and a Moroccan Treasure: Colonel Percival Kirke and Mulay Ismail, 1682–1683." The Seventeenth Century, 2011: 119-129.
  111. Matar, N. "Islam in Britain 1558-1685." Cambridge, 1998: 76-82.
  112. Mérigoux, J. "L’ouvrage d’un frère prêcheur florentin en orient à la fin du XIIIe siècle: le Contra legem sarracenorum de Riccoldo da Monte di Croce." Memorie domenicane, 1986: 1-142.
  113. Mossman, S. "The Western understanding of Islamic theology in the later Middle Ages. Mendicant responses to Islam from Riccoldo da Monte di Croce to Marquand von Lindau." Recherches de Theologie et Philosophie Medievales, 2007: 169-224.
  114. Mulsow, M. "Kabbala, Hellenisierungsthese und Pietismusstreit bei Abraham Hinckelmann." In Erzählende Vernunft, by G. Frank, A. Hallacker, & eds. S. Lalla, 91–104. Berlin, 2006.
  115. Mulsow, M. "Socinianism, Islam and the Radical Uses of Arabic Scholarship." al-Qanṭara, 2010: 549-586.
  116. Muñoz, F. González. El conocimiento del Corán entre los mozárabes del siglo IX. Santiago Compostela, 2002.
  117. Nielsen, J. Towards a European Islam. Basingstoke, 1999.
  118. Nuovo, A. "La scoperta del Corano arabo, ventisei anni dopo: un riesame." Nuovi Annali della Scuola speciale per archivisti e bibliotecari, 2013: 9-23.
  119. Nuovo, Angela. Alessandro Paganino (1509-1538). Padova, 1990.
  120. Nuovo, Angela. "Il Corano arabo ritrovato (Venezia, Paganino e Alessandro Paganini, tra l’agosto 1537 e l’agosto 1538)." La Bibliofilia, 1987: 237-271.
  121. Ó, de la Cruz Palma. La traducción latina del Corán atribuida al Patriarca de Costantinopla Cirilo Lúcaris (1572–1638). Madrid, 2006.
  122. O. Hanne, L’Alcoran. Comment l’Europe a découvert le Coran. Paris, 2019.
  123. O’Meara, T. "The theology and times of William of Tripoli, OP. A different view of islam." Theological Studies, 2008: 80-98.
  124. Pachurka, D. Ricoldus de Monte Crucis, Tractatus seu disputatio contra Saracenos et Alchoranum. Wiesbaden, 2016.
  125. Palma, Ó. de la Cruz, and M. Planas. "Los primeros orientalistas frente al islam: la traducción latina del Corán de Guillaume Postel (1544)." In Religio in Labyrintho, by ed. J.J. Caerols, 167-179. Madrid , 2013.
  126. Palma, Ó. de la Cruz, and M. Planas. "Sobre el Coran latino de Guillaume Postel." Rivista di storia e letteratura religiosa, 2015: 515-539.
  127. Petry, Y. Gender, Kabbalah and the Reformation. The Mystical Theology of Guillaume Postel (1510-1581). Leiden – Boston, 2004.
  128. Piemontese, A.M. A.M. Piemontese, “Il Corano in Italia umanistica”, Bibbia e Corano. Edizioni e ricezioni, C. Baffioni et al., eds., “Accademia Ambrosiana”. Roma, 2016.
  129. Piemontese, M.A. "Il Corano latino di Ficino e i Corani arabi di Pico e Monchates." Rinascimento, 1996: 227-273.
  130. R. George-Tvrtković and D.F. Duclow, eds. Nicholas of Cusa and Islam. Polemic and Dialogue in the Late Middle Age. Leiden – Boston, 2014.
  131. Reinhold, and ed. F. Glei. Frühe Koranübersetzungen. Europäische und außereuropäische Fallstudien. Trier, 2012.
  132. Reinhold, F. Glei, and R. Tottoli. Ludovico Marracci at Work: The Evolution of His Latin Translation of the Qurʾān in the Light of His Newly Discovered Manuscripts with an Edition and a Comparative Linguistic Analysis of Sura 18. 2016, Wiesbaden.
  133. Rooden, P.T. van. Theology, Biblical Scholarship, and Rabbinical Studies in the Seventeenth Century. Leiden, 1989.
  134. Roth, U. "Juan de Segovia’s Translation of the Qur’ān." al-Qanṭara, 2014: 555-578.
  135. Şahin, E. Europäischer Islam: Diskurs im Spannungsfeld von Universalität, Historizität, Normativität und Empirizität. Wiesbaden, 2017.
  136. Salmon, V. "Arabists and linguists in Seventeenth-century England." In The ‘Arabick’ Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-century England, by ed. G.A. Russell, 54-69. Leiden – Boston – Köln, 1994.
  137. Santacruz, V. Sanz. "Juan de Segovia y Nicolás de Cusa frente al Islam: su comprensión intelectualista de la fe Cristiana." Anuario de Historia de la Iglesia, 2007: 181-194.
  138. Scotto, D. "Projecting the Qur’an into the Past. A Reassessment of Juan de Segovia’s Disputes with Muslims in Medina del Campo (1431)." In The Iberian Qur’an: From the Middle Ages to Modern Times, by eds. M. García-Arenal, & G. Wiegers, 107-132. Berlin, 2022.
  139. Scotto, D. "Sulla soglia della ‘Cribratio’. Riflessi dell’Islam nell’esperienza di Niccolò Cusano." Rivista di storia e letteratura religiosa, 2001: 225-281.
  140. Scotto, D. "Tracce del Corano tra i libri di un cardinale romano. Domenico Capranica e l’Oriente nel riflesso del Vat. lat. 7317." Studi medievali, 2023: 205-228.
  141. —. uan de Segovia e il Corano. Convertire i musulmani nell’Europa del Quattrocento. Loveno di Menaggio, 2022.
  142. Setton, K.M. Western hostility to Islam and prophecies of Turkish doom. Philadelphia, 1992.
  143. Shore, P. A Baroque Jesuit’s Encounter with the Qur’an. An Examination of Ignazio Lomellini’s, S. J., Animadversiones, Notae ac Disputationes in Pestilentem Alcoranum. Wiesbaden, 2023.
  144. Shore, P. "An early Jesuit encounter with the Qur’an: Ignazio Lomellini’s Animadversiones, Notae ac Disputationes in pestilentem Alcoranum." The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 2017: 1-22.
  145. Sibgatullina, G., and I. Rakhimova. "Arabic Edition of the Qurʾān, Kazan, 1803." In Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān Brill, by ed. Johanna Pink. n.d.
  146. Southern, R. Western Views of Islam in the Middle Ages. Cambridge, 1962.
  147. Starczewska, Katarzyna K. Latin Translation of the Qurʾān (1518/1621) Commissioned by Egidio da Viterbo. Critical Edition and Case Study. Wiesbaden, 2018.
  148. Stella, eds. F., and R. Tottoli. The Qur’an in Rome. Manuscripts, Translations, and the Study of Islam in Early Modern Catholicism. Berlin, 2023.
  149. Stella, F. "A Nineteenth-Century Catholic Translation of the Qur’an into Italian by Vincenzo Calza, Pontifical Consul General of Algiers." Journal of Qur’anic Studies, 2022: 70-88.
  150. Stella, F. "The Mi‘rāğ of Muḥammad according to Baldassarre Loyola Mandes S.J. (1631-1667). Sources, Controversy and Christianization of an Islamic Tradition." Al-Qanṭara, 2021: 18.
  151. Szpiech, R., K. Starczewska, and M. García-Arenal Rodríguez. "Deleytaste del dulce sono y no pensaste en las palabras.’ Rendering Arabic in the Antialcoranes." Journal of Transcultural Medieval Studies, 2018: 99-132.
  152. Tolan, J. Petrus Alfonsi and His Medieval Readers. Gainesville, 1993.
  153. Tolan, J. "The European Qur’an: the Place of the Muslim Holy Book in European Cultural History." Medieval Worlds, 2021: 296-307.
  154. —. The historiography of Medieval Christian-Muslim relations (1960-2020). De Medio Aevo, 2023.
  155. Tolan, J., and T. Serrier and E. Makhotina (eds). Edge People: Außenseiter”, in Zwischenwelten: Grenzüberschreitungen Europäischer Geschichte. Darmstadt: WBG, 2023.
  156. Tolan, J.V. Faces of Muhammad: Western Perceptions of the Prophet of Islam from the Middle Ages to Today. Princeton NJ, 2019.
  157. —. Saracens. Islam in Medieval European Imagination. New York, 2002.
  158. Toledo, Mark of, and L. Formisano (eds). Iddio ci dia buon viaggio e guadagno: Firenze, Biblioteca Riccardiana, ms. 1910, Codice Vaglienti. Firenze, 2006.
  159. Toledo, Mark of, and N. Petrus Pons (eds). Alchoranus Latinus quem transtulit Marcus Canonicus Toletanus: estudio y edición crítica. Madrid: 2016, n.d.
  160. Tommasino, P.M. "Discussioni di confine sul dogma della trinità: l’uso della basmala in Bartholomaeus Georgievits (Transilvanya, 1547) e nel monaco ‘Anbāqom (Etiopia, 1540)." Islamochristiana, 2009: 101-139.
  161. —. L’Alcorano di Macometto. Storia di un libro del Cinquecento europeo. Bologna , 2013.
  162. —. The Venetian Qurʾan. A Renaissance Companion to Islam. Philadelphia, 2018.
  163. Toomer, G.J. Eastern Wisedome and Learning: the Study of Arabic in Seventeenth-Century England. Oxford, 1996.
  164. Toomer, G.J. "John Selden, the Levant and the Netherlands in the History of Scholarship." In The Republic of Letters and the Levant, by A. Hamilton, M.H. van den Boogert, & eds. B. Westerwell, 53-76. Leiden – Boston, 2005.
  165. Toomer, G.J., and John Selden. A Life in Scholarship. Oxford, 2009.
  166. Tottoli, Roberto. "La traduzione latina del Corano attribuita a Cirillo Lucaris (m. 1638) nel Ms Berlin, SBPK ar. 1032 e in altri manoscritti." Quaderni di Studi Arabi, 2016: 135–148.
  167. Tottoli, Roberto. "New light on the translation of the Qur’ān of Ludovico Marracci from his manuscripts recently discovered at the Order of the Mother of God in Rome." In Books and Written Culture of Islamic World. Studies Presented to Claude Gilliot on the Occasion of His 75th Birthday, by A. Rippin, & eds. Roberto Tottoli, 91-130. Leiden – Boston, 2015.
  168. Tottoli, Roberto. "The Latin translation of the Qur’ān by Johann Zechendorff (1580-1662) discovered in Cairo Dar al-Kutub." Oriente Moderno, 2015: 5-31.
  169. —. The Qur’an: A Guidebook. Berlin – Boston, 2023.
  170. Tripolis, Wilhelm von. Notitia de Machometo, De statu sarracenorum, ed. P. Engels. Altenberg , 1992.
  171. Ullmann, Schickard M. "Arabische, türkische und persische Studien." In Wilhem Schickard 1592-1635: Astronom, Geograph, Orientalist, Erfinder der Rechenmaschine, by ed. F. Seck, 109-128. Tübingen, 1978.
  172. "Un témoin mejeur du role des communautés juives de Sicile dans la préservation et la diffusion en Italie d’un savoir sur l’arabe et l’Islam au XVe siècle: les notes interlinéaire et marginales du ‘Coran de Mithridate." In Chrétiens, juifs et musulmans dans le Méditerranée médiévale. Etudes en hommage à Henri Bresc, 45-56. Paris, 2008.
  173. Varani, G. "Leibniz und Islam: Die Betrachtung des Korans als erster Ansatz zu einer Kulturbegegnung im 17. Und 18. Jahrhundert." Studia Leibnitiana, 2008: 48-71.
  174. Vernet, J, and L.R. Figuls. Alcorán: traducción castellana de un morisco anónimo del año 1606. Barcelona, 2001.
  175. Wiegers, G. "Learned Moriscos and Arabic studies in the Netherlands, 1609-1624." In Romania arabica. Festschrift für Reinhold Kontzi zum 70, by Geburtstag, & ed. J. Lüdtke, 405-417. Tübingen, 1996.
  176. Wiegers, G. "Moriscos and Arabic studies in Europe." al-Qanṭara, 2010: 587-610.
  177. Wiegers, G. "Translations of the Qur’ān in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia”, Encounters: Jewish, Christian and Muslim Culture in Confluence and Dialogue." 2015: 121-130.
  178. Wiegers, G.A. A Learned Acquaintance of Erpenius and Golius: Aḥmad b. Qāsim al-Andalusī and Arabic studies in the Netherlands. Leiden, 1988.
  179. Wilkinson, R.J. Orientalism, Aramaic and Kabbalah in the Catholic Reformation. The First Printing of the Syriac New Testament. Leiden – Boston, 2007.
  180. Wolf, A.M. ean de Segovia and the Fight for Peace. Christians and Muslims in the Fifteenth Century. Notre Dame, 2014.

How to Cite

Tottoli, R. (2023). The Qur’an in Europe, A European Qur’an: A History of Reading, Translation, Polemical Confrontation and Scholarly Appreciation. Jurnal Studi Ilmu-Ilmu Al-Qur’an Dan Hadis, 24(2), 285–336. https://doi.org/10.14421/qh.v24i2.4738