Medikalisasi dan Sosial Kontrol: Kebijakan terhadap Difabel di Hindia-Belanda Abad XVII-XIX

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Rifa'i Shodiq Fathoni


This study aims to explore the policies of the Dutch colonial government towards people with disabilities. Nowadays, the practice of medicalization of disability remains being carried out, and it causes many losses. This paper explores the historical roots of the problem: why did disability medicalization occur and how? Historiographical studies on disability during the colonial period were still minimal. For this reason, the researcher uses historical research methods (heuristics, source criticism, and interpretation) in this article. This study found that the medicalization of the disability started in 1619 in military hospitals. It was then continued with the establishment of the first mental hospital in 1882 in Bogor. The practice of medicalization of disability carried out by the colonial authorities served as a means of social control.

[Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi kebijakan pemerintah kolonial Belanda terhadap difabel. Dewasa ini praktik medikalisasi disabilitas masih dilakukan dan banyak menyebabkan kerugian. Penelitian menelusuri akar historis masalah tersebut: mengapa medikalisasi disabilitas terjadi dan bagaimana? Studi historiografi tentang disabilitas pada masa kolonial masih sangat terbatas. Untuk itu, peneliti menggunakan metode penelitian sejarah (heuristik, kritik sumber, dan interpretasi) dalam artikel ini. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa medikalisasi terhadap difabel telah dilakukan sejak tahun 1619 di rumah sakit militer. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan didirikannya rumah sakit jiwa pertama pada 1882 di Bogor. Praktik medikalisasi disabilitas dilakukan oleh penguasa saat itu berfungsi sebagai alat kontrol sosial di masyarakat.]


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Fathoni, R. S. (2021). Medikalisasi dan Sosial Kontrol: Kebijakan terhadap Difabel di Hindia-Belanda Abad XVII-XIX. INKLUSI, 8(1), 63–74.


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