Augmenting Early Childhood Speech Skills through Audiovisual Talk Time Playing (ATTP): A Research & Development Approach

Main Article Content

Syamsuardi Saodi
Herlina Herlina
Rusmayadi Rusmayadi
Sadaruddin Sadaruddin
Hasmawaty Hasmawaty


This study focused on developing, validating, and evaluating the effectiveness of the Audiovisual Talk Time Playing (ATTP) model for enhancing speech skills in 5-6-year-old children within a kindergarten environment. Employing research with development methodology, this study followed Plomp's (1997) framework through four phases: design, realization/construction, testing, evaluation, and implementation. The ATTP model was developed through a detailed analysis and synthesis of requirements for fostering young learners' speaking skills. Its practical application involved translating the theoretical model into a classroom with 15 children. The model's effectiveness was evaluated using validation sheets, model assessments, usability sheets, observation sheets, teacher questionnaires, and student learning outcome evaluation sheets. Qualitative data was collected through observations and teacher questionnaires, while quantitative data was derived from assessments of children's speaking abilities. The results indicated a significant improvement in children's communication skills, with an increased percentage of children moving from 'adequate' to 'good' speech skills categories. Educators responded positively to the ATTP model, emphasizing its practicality and effectiveness. The study concluded that the ATTP model, with its interactive and multisensory approach, is a more engaging and effective method for language development in early childhood education than traditional methodologies. However, the study's limited focus on a specific age group and setting suggests the need for future research to explore the model's long-term impacts and adaptability in different educational contexts.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Saodi, S., Herlina, H., Rusmayadi, R., Sadaruddin, S., & Hasmawaty, H. (2023). Augmenting Early Childhood Speech Skills through Audiovisual Talk Time Playing (ATTP): A Research & Development Approach. Golden Age: Jurnal Ilmiah Tumbuh Kembang Anak Usia Dini, 8(4), 273–284.


Agustini, K., & Ngarti, J. G. (2020). Pengembangan Video Pembelajaran Untuk Meningkatkan Motivasi Belajar Siswa Menggunakan Model R & D. Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Dan Pembelajaran, 4(April 2020), 62–78.

Atkinson, R. K., Mayer, R. E., & Merrill, M. M. (2005). Fostering social agency in multimedia learning: Examining the impact of an animated agent’s voice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30(1), 117–139.

Behnamnia, N., Kamsin, A., Ismail, M. A. B., & Hayati, A. (2020). The effective components of creativity in digital game-based learning among young children: A case study. Children and Youth Services Review, 116, 105227.

Berti, S., Cigala, A., & Sharmahd, N. (2019). Early Childhood Education and Care Physical Environment and Child Development: State of the art and Reflections on Future Orientations and Methodologies. Educational Psychology Review, 31(4), 991–1021.

Çetin, E. (2021). Digital storytelling in teacher education and its effect on the digital literacy of pre-service teachers. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 39, 100760.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. SAGE.

Dhivya, D. S., Hariharasudan, A., & Nawaz, N. (2023). Unleashing potential: Multimedia learning and Education 4.0 in learning Professional English Communication. Cogent Social Sciences, 9(2), 2248751.

Dorouka, P., Papadakis, S., & Michail, K. (2020). Tablets and apps for promoting robotics, mathematics, STEM education and literacy in early childhood education. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, 14(2).

Edgar, E. V, Eschman, B., Todd, J. T., Testa, K., Ramirez, B., & Bahrick, L. E. (2023). The effects of socioeconomic status on working memory in childhood are partially mediated by intersensory processing of audiovisual events in infancy. Infant Behavior and Development, 72, 101844.

Feldman, J. I., Dunham, K., Conrad, J. G., Simon, D. M., Cassidy, M., Liu, Y., Tu, A., Broderick, N., Wallace, M. T., & Woynaroski, T. G. (2020). Plasticity of temporal binding in children with autism spectrum disorder: A single case experimental design perceptual training study. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 74, 101555.

Fitria, A. (2014). Penggunaan Media Audio Visual Dalam Peroses Pembelajaran. Cakrawala Dini, 5((2)), 57–63.

Gonzalez, J. E., Liew, J., Zou, Y., Curtis, G., & Li, D. (2022). “They’re Going to Forget About Their Mother Tongue”: Influence of Chinese Beliefs in Child Home Language and Literacy Development. Early Childhood Education Journal, 50(7), 1109–1120.

Hanifah, T. U. (2014). Pemanfaatan Media Pop-Up Book Berbasis Tematik Untuk Meningkatkan Kecerdasan Verbal-Linguistik Anak Usia 4-5 Tahun (Studi Eksperimen Di Tk Negeri Pembina Bulu Temanggung). Early Childhood Education Papers ( Belia), 3(2), 46–54.

Hassenfeld, Z. R., Govind, M., Ruiter, L. E. De, & Bers, M. U. (2020). If You Can Program, You Can Write: Learning Introductory Programming Across Literacy Levels. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 92, 065–085.

He, L., Niu, M., Tiwari, P., Marttinen, P., Su, R., Jiang, J., Guo, C., Wang, H., Ding, S., Wang, Z., Pan, X., & Dang, W. (2022). Deep learning for depression recognition with audiovisual cues: A review. Information Fusion, 80, 56–86.

Hu, B. Y., Fan, X., Wu, Y., LoCasale-Crouch, J., & Song, Z. (2019). Contributions of Teacher–Child Interaction Quality to Chinese Children’s Development in the Early Childhood Years. Early Education and Development, 30(2), 159–177.

Jusslin, S., Korpinen, K., Lilja, N., Martin, R., Lehtinen-Schnabel, J., & Anttila, E. (2022). Embodied learning and teaching approaches in language education: A mixed studies review. Educational Research Review, 37, 100480.

Kesäläinen, J., Suhonen, E., Alijoki, A., & Sajaniemi, N. (2022). Children’s play behaviour, cognitive skills and vocabulary in integrated early childhood special education groups. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 26(3), 284–300.

Kim, S. J., & Hachey, A. C. (2021). Engaging Preschoolers with Critical Literacy Through Counter-Storytelling: A Qualitative Case Study. Early Childhood Education Journal, 49(4), 633–646.

Kusuma Sari, N. M. I. (2021). Media Pembelajaran Berbasis Audio Visual Ayo Belajar Budaya Nusantara untuk Menstimulasi Perkembangan Bahasa Anak Usia Dini. Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini Undiksha, 9(3), 391.

Laakso, N. L., Korhonen, T. S., & Hakkarainen, K. P. J. (2021). Developing students’ digital competences through collaborative game design. Computers & Education, 174, 104308.

Mason, G. M., Goldstein, M. H., & Schwade, J. A. (2019). The role of multisensory development in early language learning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 183, 48–64.

Matsumoto, H., & Miho, M. T. (2018). Teachers’ beliefs about literacy practices for young children in early childhood education and care settings. International Journal of Early Years Education, 27(3), 1–16.

Maureen, I. Y., van der Meij, H., & de Jong, T. (2018). Supporting Literacy and Digital Literacy Development in Early Childhood Education Using Storytelling Activities. International Journal of Early Childhood, 50(3), 371–389.

McLeod, S., Crowe, K., McCormack, J., White, P., Wren, Y., Baker, E., Masso, S., & Roulstone, S. (2018). Preschool children’s communication, motor and social development: Parents’ and educators’ concerns. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 20(4), 468–482.

Michelsanti, D., Tan, Z.-H., Sigurdsson, S., & Jensen, J. (2019). Deep-learning-based audio-visual speech enhancement in presence of Lombard effect. Speech Communication, 115, 38–50.

Moein, N., Mohamadi, R., Rostami, R., Nitsche, M., Zomorrodi, R., & Ostadi, A. (2022). Investigation of the effect of delayed auditory feedback and transcranial direct current stimulation (DAF-tDCS) treatment for the enhancement of speech fluency in adults who stutter: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 72, 105907.

Murtiyah, Wijiyanto, A., & Asrifan, A. (2021). Pengaruh Media Pembelajaran Audio Visual Dan Alat Peraga Edukatif Terhadap Hasil Perkembangan Anak Di Ra Al Khodijah Purworejo Kecamatan Ngunut Kabupaten Tulung Agung. Jurnal Pendidikan, 1(1), 1–23.

Nicolaou, C., Matsiola, M., Karypidou, C., Podara, A., Kotsakis, R., & Kalliris, G. (2021). Media Studies, Audiovisual Media Communications, and Generations: The Case of Budding Journalists in Radio Courses in Greece. In Journalism and Media (Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 155–192).

Nilsson, M., Ferholt, B., & Lecusay, R. (2018). ‘The playing-exploring child’: Reconceptualizing the relationship between play and learning in early childhood education. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 19(3), 231–245.

Nobre, J. N. P., Vinolas Prat, B., Santos, J. N., Santos, L. R., Pereira, L., Guedes, S. da C., Ribeiro, R. F., & Morais, R. L. de S. (2020). Quality of interactive media use in early childhood and child development: a multicriteria analysis. Jornal de Pediatria, 96(3), 310–317.

Oakley, G., Wildy, H., & Berman, Y. (2018). Multimodal digital text creation using tablets and open-ended creative apps to improve the literacy learning of children in early childhood classrooms. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 20(4).

Palomares-Aguilera, M., Inostroza-Allende, F., & Solar, L. R. (2021). Speech pathology telepractice intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic for Spanish-speaking children with cleft palate: A systematic review. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 144, 110700.

Plomp, T. (1997). Educational and training system design. Enschede, The Netherlands: Univercity of Twente.

Rahiem, M. D. H. (2021). Storytelling in early childhood education: Time to go digital. International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy, 15(1).

Romeo, R. R., Leonard, J. A., Robinson, S. T., West, M. R., Mackey, A. P., Rowe, M. L., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2018). Beyond the 30-Million-Word Gap: Children’s Conversational Exposure Is Associated With Language-Related Brain Function. Psychological Science, 29(5), 700–710.

Ruggeri, A., Xu, F., & Lombrozo, T. (2019). Effects of explanation on children’s question asking. Cognition, 191(May), 1–11.

Russotti, J., Warmingham, J. M., Duprey, E. B., Handley, E. D., Manly, J. T., Rogosch, F. A., & Cicchetti, D. (2021). Child maltreatment and the development of psychopathology: The role of developmental timing and chronicity. Child Abuse & Neglect, 120, 105215.

Taupiac, E., Lacombe, D., Thiébaut, E., Van-Gils, J., Michel, G., Fergelot, P., & Adrien, J.-L. (2021). Psychomotor, cognitive, and socio-emotional developmental profiles of children with Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and a severe intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 46(1), 80–89.

Teale, W. H., Whittingham, C. E., & Hoffman, E. B. (2020). Early literacy research, 2006–2015: A decade of measured progress. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 20(2), 169–222.

Torppa, R., & Huotilainen, M. (2019). Why and how music can be used to rehabilitate and develop speech and language skills in hearing-impaired children. Hearing Research, 380, 108–122.

Towell, J. L., Bartram, L., Morrow, S., & Brown, S. L. (2021). Reading to babies: Exploring the beginnings of literacy. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 21(3), 321–337.

Ulfa, M. (2019). Pembelajaran PAKEM Berbasis Media Audio Visual Gerak dalam Melatih Konsentrasi Belajar Anak di TPA Sahabat Hati Pontianak. Al-Athfal : Jurnal Pendidikan Anak, 5(1), 53–68.

Vadia, P., Riandini, A., Sudatha, I. G. W., & Parmiti, D. P. (2020). Korelasi antara Kecerdasan Emosional dan Motivasi Belajar dengan Hasil Belajar PPKn. Jurnal Mimbar PGSD Undiksha, 8(3), 468–478.

van der Wilt, F., van der Veen, C., van Kruistum, C., & van Oers, B. (2018). Why can’t I join? Peer rejection in early childhood education and the role of oral communicative competence. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 54, 247–254.

Wang, M.-T., Degol, J. L., & Henry, D. A. (2019). An integrative development-in-sociocultural-context model for children’s engagement in learning. In American Psychologist (Vol. 74, Issue 9, pp. 1086–1102). American Psychological Association.

Wang, W., & Delfin, A. B. (2021). Learning Chinese Mandarin characters in an English-speaking country: The development of a child’s symbolic mind. Journal of Childhood, Education and Society, 2(2), 87–105.