Miskawayh (d. 1030) on Justice and The Limits of Law

Main Article Content

Annas Rolli Muchlisin

Abstract

This article explores the limitations of Islamic law within the broader intellectual tradition of Islam. While law is typically designed to enforce coercive justice, Miskawayh’s perspective attempts to integrate this conception through a reassessment of the concept of justice. Specifically, this article examines, first, the overarching view of Islam as a nomothetic religion; and second, the ethical concepts and vision of justice offered by Miskawayh. By contextualizing Miskawayh’s ideas within the broader cultural and intellectual traditions of Islam, this research reveals a contrasting view of legal mechanisms. For Miskawayh, the vision of justice is not necessarily derived from external mechanisms of divine revelation, but rather hinges on the internal mechanisms of the individual. Miskawayh emphasizes a reversal of mechanisms from external to internal by advocating for a greater role of ethical-philosophical thought in Islamic legal discourse. Miskawayh, like many Muslim philosophers, navigates the relationship between revealed law and reason in his conception of justice. He rejects the notion of inherent conflict, arguing that both reason and divine law originate from God.

Article Details

How to Cite
Muchlisin, Annas Rolli. “Miskawayh (d. 1030) on Justice and The Limits of Law”. ESENSIA: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin 25, no. 1 (June 5, 2024): 1–9. Accessed July 19, 2024. https://ejournal.uin-suka.ac.id/ushuluddin/esensia/article/view/5475.
Section
Articles

References

Adamson, Peter. 2007. “Miskawayh’s Psychology,” in Classical Arabic Philosophy Sources and Reception, edited by Peter Adamson. Warburg Institute.

_______. 2015. “Miskawayh on Pleasure,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, vol. 25.

Akyol, Mustafa. 2021. Reopening Muslim Minds: A Return to Reason, Freedom, and Tolerance. New York: St. Martin Essentials.

Ansari, M. Abdul Haq. 1964. The Ethical Philosophy of Miskawayh. Aligarh, India: The Aligarh Muslim University Press.

Bhat, Badruddin. 1986. “Miskawayh on Social Justice, Education, and Friendship,” Islamic Studies, vol. 25, no. 2.

Bouhafa, Feriel. 2018. “Averroes’ Corrective Philosophy of Law,” in Interpreting Averroes: Critical Essays, edited by Peter Adamson and Matteo Di Giovanni. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

_______. 2019. “Ethics and Fiqh in al-Farabi’s Philosophy,” in Philosophy and Jurisprudence in the Islamic World, edited by Peter Adamson. Berlin: de Gruyter.

Fakhry, Majid. 1975. “Justice in Islamic Philosophical Ethics: Miskawayh’s Mediating Contribution,” JRE.

_______. 1975. “The Platonism of Miskawayh and Its Implication for His Ethics,” Studia Islamica, no. 42.

_______. 1994. Ethical Theories in Islam. Leiden: Brill.

Frank, Richard M. 1983. ‘‘Moral obligations in classical Muslim theology,’’ Journal of Religious Ethics, 11.

GhaneaBassiri, Kambiz. 2003. “A Window on Islam in Buyid Society: Justice and Its Epistemological Foundation in the Religious Thought of ‘Abd al-Jabbar, Ibn al-Baqillani, and Miskawayh,” Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University.

Gibb, H.A.R. 1962. Mohammedanism An Historical Survey. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Irwin, Terence. 2012. “Virtue and Law,” in The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Philosophy, edited by John Marenbon. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Miskawayh, Ahmad ibn Muhammad. 1968. The Refinement of Character, translated by Constantine K. Zurayk. Beirut: The American University of Beirut.

Mohamed, Y. 2000. “Greek Thought in Arab Ethics: Miskawayh’s Theory of Justice,” Phronimon, vol. 2.

Omar, Moh Nasir bin. 2000. “Preliminary Remarks on Greek Sources of Muslim Ethics,” Islamic Quarterly.

_______. 2003. Miskawayh’s Ethical Thought and Its Sources. Bangi: Fakulti Pengajian Islam, University Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Reinhart, A. Kevin. 1983. “Islamic Law as Islamic Ethics,” The Journal of Religious Ethics, fall, vol. 11, no. 2.

Saleh, Walid. 2015. “Qur’anic Commentaries,” in Seyyed Hossein Nasr (ed.), The Study Qur’an: A New Translation and Commentary. US: HarperOne.

Schacht, Joseph. 1982. An Introduction to Islamic Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Solum, Lawrence B. 2018. “Law and Virtue,” in The Routledge Companion to Virtue Ethics, edited by Lorraine Besser-Jones and Michael Slote. New York and London: Routledge.

Walzer, Richard. 1962. Greek into Arabic: Essays on Islamic Philosophy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. 1997. Religion and Politics under the Early ‘Abbasids: the Emergence of the Proto-Sunni Elite. Leiden: Brill.

Zubaida, Sami. 2003. Law and Power in the Islamic World. London, New York: I.B. Tauris.