Intervensi Kejelasan Berbicara Anak Tunagrahita Melalui Pemodelan Berbasis Video

Nurika Miftakul Janah
* Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14421/ijds.070101

Abstract


Children with intellectual disabilities often experience unclear speaking in the form of omission (reduction of words) and distortion (chaos in pronunciation). This problem resulted from their limited ability to understand words. The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of video-based modelling with the help of folder-learning in improving speech intelligibility of mentally disabled children. The research method used is Single Subject Research with a Multiple Baseline Cross Variable design. The intervention involved video-based modelling of correct phoneme pronunciation and learning folder assistance that was used to help children learn the various types of spelling commonly found from Indonesian phonograms. The results revealed that video-based modelling with the help of folder-learning could be effectively used to improve the speech intelligibility of mentally disabled children. The use of songs in videos and the opportunity for children to write and delete in the learning folder become its main attraction in learning.

[Anak tunagrahita sering mengalami ketidakjelasan berbicara berupa omisi (pengurangan kata) maupun distorsi (kekacauan dalam pengucapan). Hal ini biasanya disebabkan oleh keterbatasan kemampuan mereka dalam memahami kata-kata. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menjelaskan efektifitas pemodelan berbasis video dengan bantuan folder-belajar dalam meningkatkan kejelasan bicara anak tunagrahita. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah Single Subject Research dengan desain Multipe Baseline Cross Variable. Intervensi melibatkan sebuah pemodelan berbasis video tentang pengucapan fonem yang benar dan bantuan folder-belajar yang digunakan untuk membantu anak mempelajari berbagai macam ejaan yang umum ditemukan dari fonogram Bahasa Indonesia. Hasil penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa pemodelan berbasis video dengan bantuan folder-belajar dapat secara efektif digunakan untuk meningkatkan kejelasan berbicara anak tunagrahita. Penggunaan lagu pada video dan kesempatan anak untuk menulis serta menghapus dalam folder belajar menjadi daya tarik tersendiri dalam pembelajaran.]


Keywords


video-based modelling; learning-folder; speech intelligibility; children with intellectual Disabilities; learning media for the disabled; disability intervention; pemodelan berbasis video; folder belajar; kejelasan berbicara; media belajar Tunagrahita; in

Full Text:

PDF

References


Avcioglu, H. (2013). Effectiveness of Video Modelling in Training Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Greet People When They Meet. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 13(1), 466–477.

Avenell, A. (2012). Capstone Projects and Theses Using video modeling and role playing activities to teach social skills to middle school students with intellectual disabilities. California State University.

Batshaw, M., Roizen, N., & Lotrecchiano, G. (Ed.). (2012). Children with Disabilities (Seventh edition). Brookes Publishing.

Brame, C. J. (2016). Effective Educational Videos: Principles and Guidelines for Maximizing Student Learning from Video Content. Center for Teaching and Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.16-03-0125

Charlop-Christy, M. H., Le, L., & Freeman, K. A. (2000). A Comparison of Video Modeling with in Vivo Modeling for Teaching Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(6), 537–552. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005635326276

Coppens-Hofman, M. C., Terband, H., Snik, A. F. M., & Maassen, B. A. M. (2017). Speech Characteristics and Intelligibility in Adults with Mild and Moderate Intellectual Disabilities. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 68(4), 175–182. https://doi.org/10.1159/000450548

Dodd, B., & Thompson, L. (2001). Speech disorder in children with Down ’ s syndrome. Journal of Intelectual Disability Research, 45(4), 308–316.

Dowrick, P. W. (1999). A Review of Self Modeling and Related Interventions. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 8(1), 23–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0962-1849(99)80009-2

Effendi, M. (2009). Pengantar Psikopedagogik Anak Berkelainan. PT Bumi Aksara.

Georgieva, D., & Cholakova, M. (1996). Speech and Language Disorders in Children with Intellectual Disability. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED405675

Gettman, D. (2016). Metode Pengajaran Montessori Tingkat Dasar Aktifitas Belajar untuk Anak Balita. Pustaka Pelajar.

Goh, A. E., & Bambara, L. M. (2013). Video Self-Modeling: A Job Skills Intervention with Individuals with Intellectual Disability in Employment Settings. Education and Training in Autism and Development Disabilities, 48(1), 103–119.

Hodson, B. W., & Paden, E. P. (1981). Phonological Processes Which Characterize Unintelligible and Intelligible Speech in Early Childhood. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 46(4), 369–373.

Kamrujjaman, M. (2018). Oral Motor Difficulties and Speech Intelligibility in Bangla Speaking Children with Down Syndrome. Journal of Health and Medical Sciences, 1(1), 81–91. https://doi.org/10.31014/aior.1994.01.01.10

LeBlanc, L. A., Coates, A. M., Daneshvar, S., Charlop-Christy, M. H., Morris, C., & Lancaster, B. M. (2003). Using Video Modeling and Reinforcement to Teach Perspective-Taking Skills to Children with Autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36(2), 253–257. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2003.36-253

LeGrice, B., & Blampied, N. M. (1994). Training Pupils with Intellectual Disability to Operate Educational Technology Using Video Prompting. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 29(4), 321–330.

Marrus, N., & Hall, L. (2017). Intellectual Disability and Language Disorder. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 26(3), 539–554. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2017.03.001

Memisevic, H., & Hadzic, S. (2013). Speech and Language Disorders in Children with Intellectual Disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development, 24(2), 92–99. https://doi.org/10.5463/DCID.v24i2.214

Miller, J. F., Leddy, M., & Leavitt, L. A. (Ed.). (1998). Improving the Communication of People With Down Syndrome (1 edition). Paul H Brookes Pub Co.

Nikopoulos, & Keenan. (2006). Video modeling and behaviour analysis: A guide for teaching social skills to children with autism. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Park, J., Bouck, E. C., & Duenas, A. (2018). Using Video Modeling to Teach Social Skills for Employment to Youth with Intellectual Disability. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals, 2165143418810671. https://doi.org/10.1177/2165143418810671

Sax, D. M. (2015). The Use of a Video Self-Modeling Intervention to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Students with Intellectual Disability. University of Connecticut.

Smith, L. E., & Nelson, C. L. (1985). International Intelligibility of English: Directions and Resources. World Englishes, 4(3), 333–342. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1985.tb00423.x

Sugiyono. (2012). Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan R&D. Alfabeta.

Sunanto, J., Takeuchi, K., & Nakata, H. (2006). Penelitian dengan Subyek Tunggal (Bandung). UPI Press. http://library.fip.uny.ac.id/opac/index.php?p=show_detail&id=5257

Tjaden, K. K., & Liss, J. (1995). The Role of Listener Familiarity in the Perception of Dysarthric Speech. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 9(2), 139–154. https://doi.org/10.3109/02699209508985329

Tsha. (2011). Language Eligibility Manual Companion II : Intellectual Disability/Multiple Disabilities. Texas Speech-language-hearing Association.

Walser, K., Ayres, K., & Foote, E. (2012). Effects of a Video Model to Teach Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability to Use Key Features of an iPhone. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 47, 319–331.

Wehmeyer, M. L., Agran, M., Hughes, C., Martin, J. E., Mithaug, D. E., & Palmer, S. B. (2007). Promoting Self-Determination in Students with Developmental Disabilities (K. R. Harris & S. Graham, Ed.). The Guilford Publication.

Zeile, R., Ulbrich, C. E., & Fecteau, M. (2018). Early Literacy Coaching Model. Michigan Department of Education.




Copyright (c) 2020 Nurika Miftakul Janah

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.