YUDISIALISASI DAN LIMITASI HUKUM ISLAM: CERAI TALAK DI PENGADILAN AGAMA DI LOMBOK

Mohamad Abdun Nasir, Heru Sunardi

Abstract


Male repudiation (cerai talak) at religious courts reveals important changes in contemporary practice of Islamic law in Indonesia. This paper addresses two salient features of repudiation, namely judicialization and limitation. Based on empirical studies at the religious courts in Lombok, this study gathered the data on repudiation through observation, interview and documentation. The data shows changing practice and meaning of Islamic marital dissolution due to judicialization, that is an administrative and bureaucratic processes of legal settlement at religious courts. Upon the introduction and application of modern codification of Islamic law, such as the Compilation of Islamic Law (Kompilasi Hukum Islam/KHI) enacted by Presidential Decree No. 1/1991 and Religious Judicature Act No. 7/1989 at religious courts, the influence of fiqh on Islamic divorce has diminished significantly. Such application not only creates judicialization but also causes limitation on the number of male repudiation, outnumbered by female-initiated divorce (cerai gugat). Talak, which is male domain under the conception of fiqh, is now a contested terrain by legal actors, such as men (husbands), women (wives) and judges. Consequently, judicialization of talak has reduced not only male power but also its practice at the religious courts.

Cerai talak di pengadilan agama mencerminkan perubahan-perubahan penting dalam penerapan hukum Islam kontemporer di Indonesia. Artikel ini membahas dua fenomena mengemuka praktik talak, yaitu yudisialisasi dan limitasi. Berangkat dari penelitian empiris di pengadilan agama di Lombok dengan metode pengumpulan data melalui observasi, wawancara dan dokumentasi, penelitian ini meyingkap pergeseran pemaknaan dan praktik talak kontemporer. Hal ini disebabkan oleh yudisialisasi, yaitu proses administrasi dan birokratiasasi penyelesaian perkara di pengadilan agama. Pasca diperkenalkannya kodifikasi hukum keluarga Islam, seperti Kompilasi Hukum Islam melalui Instruksi Presiden No. 1/1991 maupun Undang-undang Peradilan Agama No. 7/1989, pengaruh fikih dalam hukum perceraian Islam berkurang secara signifikan seiring dengan pemberlakuan kodifikasi di pengadilan agama. Implikasinya bukan saja pada yudisialisasi, akan tetapi juga limitasi talak, yakni terbatasnya perkara cerai talak dibanding cerai gugat. Talak yang dalam norma fikih menjadi domain kuasa suami yang hampir mutlak, kini dalam praktiknya di pengadilan agama menjadi wilayah yang dikontestasikan oleh para aktor hukum, baik suami, istri maupun hakim sehingga berdampak pada limitasi talak, baik dari segi kuantitas perkara maupun kuasa suami dalam penyelesaian cerai talak.



Keywords


Yudisialisasi; limitasi; talak; Pengadilan Agama; Lombok

Full Text:

PDF

References


Annas, Syaiful, “Masa Pembayaran Beban Nafkah Iddah dan Mut’ah dalam Perkara Cerai Talak (Sebuah Implementasi Hukum Acara di Pengadilan Agama)”, Al-Ahwal: Jurnal Hukum Keluarga Islam 10:1 (2017): 1-12.

Bahri, Syamsul, “Konsep Nafkah dalam Hukum Islam”, Kanun Jurnal Ilmu Hukum, 17:2 (2015): 381-399.

Bariah, Oyah dan Iwan Hermawan, “Analisis Putusan PA Karawang tentang Cerai Gugat Karena Pelanggaran Ta’lik Talak”, al-Afkar 1:1 (2018): 182-195.

Esposito, John L. with Natana J. DeLong-Bas, Women in Muslim Family Law, second edition (New York: Syracuse University Press, 2002).

Fahriyanti, Nurmala, “Putusan Cerai Gugat di Kota Mataram NTB 2007-2011: Tinjauan Yuridis-Sosiologis”, Tesis Magister Studi Hukum Keluarga Islam (Mataram: Pascasarjana IAIN Mataram, 2012).

Hallaq, Wael B., “Can Sharia be Restored?”, dalam Yvonne Hazbeck-Haddad dan Barbara Freyer Stowasser (eds.), Islamic Law and the Challenges of Modernity (Walnut Creek, CA: Almatira Press, 2004), h. 21-54.

Hallaq, Wael B., Shari’a: Theory, Practice and Transformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

Hammad, Muchammad, “Hak-hak Perempuan Pasca Cerai: Nafkah Iddah Talak dalam Hukum Keluarga Muslim Indonesia, Malaysia dan Yordania”, Al-Ahwal: Jurnal Hukum Keluarga Islam 7:1 (2016): 17-28.

Huzaimah, Arne, “Urgensi Integrasi antara Mediasi dan Hakam dalam Penyelesaian Perkara Perceraian dengan alasan Syiqaq di Pengadilan Agama”, Nurani 16:2 (2016): 1-24.

Ilhami, Haniah, “Interpretation of Syiqaq and its Procedural Law at Religious Courts in Yogyakarta”, Mimbar Hukum 26:1 (2014): 148-157.

Mustafa, Abdullah dan Zainuddin Mansyur, Eksistensi Li’an sebagai Alat Penyelesaian Sengketa Rumah Tangga di Pengadilan Agama se Pulau Lombok (Mataram: Lemlit IAIN Mataram, 2010).

Nasir, Mohamad Abdun, “Islamic Law, Domination and Resistance: Women Judicial Divorce in Lombok”, Asian Journal of Social Science, 44 (2016): 78-103.

Nasir, Mohamad Abdun, “Wacana Syariat Kontemporer di Barat”, Ulul Albab 18:1 (2017): 1-20.

Nasir, Mohamad Abdun, Positivisasi Hukum Islam di Indonesia (Mataram: IAIN Mataram Press, 2004).

Nurmila, Nina, Women, Islam and everyday Life: Renegotiating Polygamy in Indonesia (Cambridge: Routledge, 2009).

Otto, Jan Michiel, “Sharia and National Law in Indonesia,” in Jan Michiel Otto (ed.), Shari’a Incorporated: A Comparative Overview of the Legal Systems of Twelve Muslim Countries in Past and Present (Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2010), h. 433-490.

Platt, Maria, “Patriarchal Institution and Women’s Agency in Indonesian Marriages: Sasak Women Navigating Dynamic Marital Continums,” PhD Dissertation (Monash, Australia: La Trobe University, 2010).

Rahmainy, Linda dan Ema Rahmawati, “Penerapan Rekonveksi sebagai Hak Istimewa Tergugat dalam Perkara Perceraian (Talaq) di Pengadilan Agama”, Jurnal Ilamih Hukum DeJure 2:2 (2017): 299-315.

Saphiro, Martin and Alec Stone Sweet, On Law, Politics and Judicialization (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2002).

Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Kualitatif, Kuantitatif dan R&D (Bandung: Alfabeta, 2014).

Susilawati, Eka, Moh. Masykur Abadi dan M. Latief Mahmud, “Pelaksanaan Putusan Nafkah Istri Pasca Cerai Talak di Pengadilan Agama Pamekasan”, Al-Ihkam: Jurnal Hukum dan Pranata Sosial 8:2 (2014): 374-393.

Sweed, Alec Stone, “Judicialization and the Construction of Governance”, dalam Shapiro dan Sweed (ed.), On Law, Politics & Judicialization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), h. 55-89.

Syafuri, B, “Nafkah Wanita Karir dalam Perspektif Fikih Klasik” Ahkam: Jurnal Ilmu Syariah, 13:2 (2014): 201-208.

Tucker, Judith E., Women, Family and Gender in Islamic Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

Wahed, Abdul, “Analisis Hukum Islam terhadap Masalah Kekerasan Dalam Rumah Tangga (KDRT)”, Al Ihkam Jurnal Hukum dan Pranata Sosial 4:1 (2013): 31-50.

Yasin, M. Nur, Hukum Perkawinan Islam Sasak (Malang: UIN Malang Press, 2010).

Yusuf, Sofyan dan Moh. Toriqul Chaer, “Ta’lik Talak Perspektif Ulama Madzhab dan Pengaruhnya dalam Rumah Tangga”, Anil Islam: Jurnal Kebudayaan dan Ilmu Keislaman 10:2 (2017): 262-284.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14421/ahwal.2018.11205

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Mohamad Abdun Nasir, Heru Sunardi

 

 

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

 

All publications by Al-Ahwal: Jurnal Hukum Keluarga Islam Department of Islamic Family Law Faculty of Sharia and Law Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University are licensed under a Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.

Address: Al-Ahwal Research Centre Department of Islamic Family Law Faculty of Sharia and Law Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University Jln. Marsda Adisucipto 1 Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia Telp./Fax.: 0274-512840 Email: alahwal.uinyogya@yahoo.com

View Al-Ahwal Stats