Strategic Planning Model of Islamic Religious Higher Education (PTKI) in Indonesia
Strategic planning for higher education is vital because it becomes a reference in determining the direction of policy and organizational performance. To win the competition in gaining the market, strategic planning activities become the spearhead in determining the strategy to achieve the appropriate institutional goals. However, the implementation of strategic planning at Islamic Religious Higher Education (PTKI) is often constrained because of the lack of understanding of the importance of these theories, so the implementation of strategic planning is often only intended for administrative requirements. Amid this condition, there is a phenomenon where some PTKIs are developing rapidly and transforming to be more market-oriented and to win the competition. These PTKIs are UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, IAIN Tulungagung, Muhammadiyah University of Malang, and Malang Islamic University. They have succeeded in creating effective strategies in organizational development until now they can become modern institutions and develop into multi-level organizations. The purpose of this study is to explore the five PTKI strategy models in Indonesia at the corporate and business unit levels based on Fred R. David's corporate-level strategy models, and Porter's generic strategy model theory Data were collected by qualitative methods through observation, interview, and documentation techniques. The results showed that at the corporate level, Fred R. David's strategy models applied by PTKI were vertical integration strategy, intensive strategy, and diversification strategy. In the defensive strategy, what is more, applied is the retrenchment strategy choice. However, at the business unit level, Porter's well-implemented strategy models are the cost leadership strategy, differentiation strategy, and focus strategy. These results have implications for the selection of business strategy models to be used in either profit-oriented or non-profit strategic planning activities in PTKI.
Alzoubi, Ahlam Mohammad, and Okechukwu Lawrence Emeagwali. “Do Generic Strategies Impact Performance in Higher Educational Institutions? A SEM-Based Investigation.” Business and Economic Horizons (BEH) 12, no. 1232-2017–2388 (2016): 42–52.
Amoli, Sara Javan, and Farnouche Aghashahi. “An Investigation on Strategic Management Success Factors in an Educational Complex.” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 230 (2016): 447–54.
Armstrong, Michael. Strategic Human Resource Management-A Guide to Action 4rd Ed. London: Kogan Page, 2008.
Bruce, Andy, and Ken Langdon. Berpikir Strategis. Jakarta: Esensi, 2007.
Bugandwa Mungu Akonkwa Deogratias. “Is Market Orientation a Relevant Strategy for Higher Education Institutions? Context Analysis and Research Agenda.” International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences 1, no. 3 (January 1, 2009): 311–33. https://doi.org/10.1108/17566690911004230.
Conway Tony. “Strategic Planning in Higher Education.” Edited by Mackay Stephen. International Journal of Educational Management 8, no. 6 (January 1, 1994): 29–36. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513549410069202.
Cowburn, Sarah. “Strategic Planning in Higher Education: Fact or Fiction?” Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education 9, no. 4 (January 2005): 103–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603100500357324.
David, Fred R. Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. 13th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2011.
Evans, Ian G. Marketing for Schools. ERIC, 1995.
Fides, Okwukweka Chukwumah, and Obiageli Ezeugbor Carol. “Problems of Implementation of Strategic Plans for Secondary Schools Improvement in Anambra State.” Educational Research and Reviews 10, no. 10 (May 23, 2015): 1384–89. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2015.2177.
Filip, Alina. “A Global Analysis of the Educational Market Environment.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 46 (2012): 1552–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.339.
Gaspersz, Vincent. “All in One Strategic Management. 20 Concepts, Models and Key Analyses in Strategic Management.” Penerbit Vinchristo Publication. Bogor, 2012.
Kisaka, Sylvia Namusoso, and Dr Walter Bichanga Okibo. “Effect of Porter’s Generic Strategies on Expansion of Academic Programmes for Competitive Advantage in Kenya.” International Journal of Research in Management 1, no. 1 (2014): 5.
Kotler, Philip, and Patrick E. Murphy. “Strategic Planning for Higher Education.” The Journal of Higher Education 52, no. 5 (1981): 470. https://doi.org/10.2307/1981836.
Malik, Syed Abdul, Nasser S. Al-Khatani, and Mohammad Naushad. “Integrating AHP, SWOT and QSPM in Strategic Planning-an Application to College of Business Administration in Saudi Arabia.” International Journal of Academic Research 5, no. 5 (2013): 373–79.
Miles, Matthew B., A. Michael Huberman, Michael A. Huberman, and Michael Huberman. Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. sage, 1994.
Porter, Michael E. Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. New York : London: Free Press ; Collier Macmillan, 1985.
———. “From Competitive Advantage to Corporate Strategy.” In Readings in Strategic Management, edited by David Asch and Cliff Bowman, 234–55. London: Macmillan Education UK, 1989. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-20317-8_17.
Rangkuti, Freddy. “Strategi Promosi Yang Kreatif, Edisi Pertama, Cetakan Pertama.” Penerbit: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta, 2009.
Robinson, Richard B., and John A. Pearce. Manajemen Strategik, Formulasi, Implementasi Dan Pengendalian, Jilid I, Alih Bahasa Oleh: Maulana, Binarupa Aksara. Jakarta, 1997.
Rosenberg Hansen, Jesper, and Ewan Ferlie. “Applying Strategic Management Theories in Public Sector Organizations: Developing a Typology.” Public Management Review 18, no. 1 (January 2, 2016): 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2014.957339.
Schüller, David, and Vladimír Chalupský. “Internal Marketing Communication of Higher Education Institutions.” Economics and Management 16, no. 1 (2011): 1316–22.
Stensaker, Bjørn, and Tatiana Fumasoli. “Multi-Level Strategies in Universities: Coordination, Contestation or Creolisation?: STENSAKER and FUMASOLI.” Higher Education Quarterly 71, no. 3 (July 2017): 263–73. https://doi.org/10.1111/hequ.12126.
Stukalina, Yulia. “Strategic Management of Higher Education Institutions.” Management of Organizations: Systematic Research 70, no. 70 (2014): 79–90. https://doi.org/10.7220/MOSR.1392.1142.2014.70.6.
Thompson, Arthur, Margaret Peteraf, John Gamble, Alonzo J. Strickland III, and Arun Kumar Jain. Crafting & Executing Strategy 19/e: The Quest for Competitive Advantage: Concepts and Cases. McGraw-Hill Education, 2013.
Wheelen, TL, and J.D. Hunger. Strategic Management and Business Policy: Toward Global Sustainability. Always Learning. Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011.