Struggle For Identity and Social Image of Haji: Study on Life History of Social Construction of Haji in Sasak Community, Lombok, NTB

Moh Soehadha
* UIN Sunan Kalijaga

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14421/esensia.v18i1.1466

Abstract


Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) has become something that attracts many Sasak Muslim people’s ambitions and focuses, in Tanah Merah, Lombok.  It also became the model of the ideal individual identity with a positive image attached to it, and people call it “tuan haji”. Sociologically, the struggle of identity and self-image building efforts of the “tuan haji” gives us the understanding of the relationship and the distance between religious doctrine, as a model for the reality of Islam, with the implementation of the doctrine in social praxis, as a model of reality in Clifford Geertz’s term. Sociological analysis in this study uses two key theoretical concepts, namely the concept of social identity and image of Pierre Bourdieu, through the concept of habitus, as well as the concept of self-image by Jean Baudrillard. This study formulates a thesis which contains the assumption that in Islam, there are teachings that maintain the economic ethos of its adherents, among other obligations, one of these teachings contained in the Hajj. Tradition and culture have strengthened the religious ethos of the Sasak people in Tanah Merah to gain access to social capital that exist within social class. It shows that the collaboration between religious teachings and cultural values become an important force in the development of a religion, and how religion spread and influences every corner of the cultural elements that exist in the area where the community is located. Together with the tradition or locality, Religion has provided the basis for the Muslim Sasak in Tanah Merah to gain prestige and social status in the social world of people of Lombok in Tanah Merah, through pilgrimage.

[Haji menjadi daya tarik yang menyedot cita-cita, ambisi, dan fokus hidup banyak individu muslim Sasak di Tanah Merah, Lombok. Haji menjadi model dari identitas individu yang ideal dengan citra positif yang melekat padanya, dan masyarakat menyebutnya sebagai tuan haji. Secara sosiologis, pergulatan identitas dan upaya membangun citra diri para tuan haji memberi pemahaman tentang relasi dan jarak antara doktrin agama sebagai model for reality dari ajaran Islam, dengan implementasi doktrin itu dalam praksis sosial sebagai model of reality dari Clifford Geertz. Analisis sosiologi dalam studi ini menggunakan dua konsep teoritis kunci, yaitu konsep tentang identitas sosial dan citra Pierre Bourdieu melalui konsep habitus, serta konsep citra diri menurut Jean Baudrillard. Dari studi ini dapat dirumuskan sebuah thesis yang berisi asumsi bahwa di dalam Islam terdapat ajaran yang menumbuhkan etos ekonomi para penganutnya, dan ajaran itu antara lain terkandung dalam kewajiban haji. Tradisi dan kultur keagamaan lokal telah menguatkan etos orang-orang Sasak di Tanah Merah untuk meraih akses terhadap modal sosial yang ada di dalam kelas sosial yang begitu dicita-citakan. Kenyataan itu menunjukkan bahwa kolaborasi antara ajaran agama dan nilai kultural menjadi kekuatan penting dalam perkembangan suatu agama, dan bagaimana agama itu kemudian berpengaruh menyebar ke setiap sudut unsur budaya yang ada di wilayah di mana komunitas itu berada. Agama bersama tradisi atau lokalitas telah memberi landasan bagi muslim Sasak di Tanah Merah untuk meraih gengsi dan status sosial dalam dunia sosial orang Lombok di Tanah Merah, melalui haji.]


Keywords


identity; social image; hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)

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ESENSIA: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin

ISSN 1411-3775  |   E-ISSN 2548-4729

Accredited by Director General of Research and Development Research and Development of the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia. Decree No: 36a/E/KPT/2016

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